A case-control study of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome during an outbreak in the Southwestern United States

Paul S. Zeitz, Jay C. Butler, James E. Cheek, Michael C. Samuel, James E. Childs, Lee A. Shands, Richard E. Turner, Ronald E. Voorhees, John Sarisky, Pierre E. Rollin, Thomas G. Ksiazek, Louisa Chapman, Susan E. Reef, Kenneth K. Komatsu, Craig Dalton, John W. Krebs, Gary O. Maupin, Kenneth Gage, C. Mack Sewell, Robert F. BreimanC. J. Peters

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In May 1993, an outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) occurred in the southwestern United States. A case-control study determined risk factors for HPS. Seventeen case-patients were compared with 3 groups of controls: members of case-patient households (household controls), members of neighboring households (near controls), and members of randomly selected households ≥24 km away (far controls). Investigators trapped more small rodents at case households than at near (P =.03) or far control households (P =.02). After the number of small rodents was controlled for, case-patients were more likely than household controls to hand plow (odds ratio [OR], 12.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–143.0) or to clean feed storage areas (OR, 33.4; 95% CI, 1.7–666.0). Case–patients were more likely than near controls to plant (OR, 6.2; 95% CI, 1.1–34.0) and more likely than far controls to clean animal sheds (OR, 11.9; 95% CI, 1.4–103.0). Peridomestic cleaning, agricultural activities, and an increased number of small rodents at the household were associated with HPS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)864-870
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1995
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Zeitz, P. S., Butler, J. C., Cheek, J. E., Samuel, M. C., Childs, J. E., Shands, L. A., Turner, R. E., Voorhees, R. E., Sarisky, J., Rollin, P. E., Ksiazek, T. G., Chapman, L., Reef, S. E., Komatsu, K. K., Dalton, C., Krebs, J. W., Maupin, G. O., Gage, K., Sewell, C. M., ... Peters, C. J. (1995). A case-control study of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome during an outbreak in the Southwestern United States. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 171(4), 864-870. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/171.4.864