A Comparative Study of Incorporation Rates between Non-xenograft and Bovine-based Structural Bone Graft in Foot and Ankle Surgery

Naohiro Shibuya, Brandon K. Holloway, Daniel Jupiter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Scopus citations


Several types of structural bone grafts are available, each with different characteristics. Our previous study showed poor performance with the bovine-based xenograft in foot and ankle applications. In the present study, we compared the incorporation rates of non-xenografts, including allografts and autografts, with the bovine-based xenograft to determine whether the poor result was unique to the graft type and not institutional. The proportion of incorporated grafts at 12, 24, 36, and 48weeks was compared between the nonxenograft and xenograft groups. Furthermore, Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the factors associated with nonunion. A total of 61 patients (23 women and 38 men) with a median age of 24.0 years were enrolled. The factors associated with slower incorporation included side of operation (p=.033), tobacco use (p=.010), and graft type (p=.001). At 48weeks, 5% of the nonxenografts and 58% of the xenografts were not incorporated. The median incorporation time for the non-xenograft and xenograft group was 16and 57 weeks, respectively. We have concluded that it is not advisable to use a bovine-based bone xenograft in foot and ankle surgery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)164-167
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Foot and Ankle Surgery
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2014
Externally publishedYes



  • Allograft
  • Autograft
  • Calcaneal osteotomy
  • Flatfoot xenograft

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Surgery

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