The objective of this study was to compare the effects of various nutrients (fats, proteins, amino acids, and carbohydrates), given directly into the duodenum or the colon, on the release of peptide-YY (PYY) in conscious dogs. As reported previously, this study showed that plasma levels of PYY increased significantly (P < 0.05) within 15 min in response to an oral mixed meal. Intraduodenal (ID) administration of a fatty acid (oleic acid; 100 mmol/L; 100 ml/h) stimulated a robust release of PYY, whereas ID administration of an amino acid mixture (phenylalanine plus tryptophan; 100 mmol/L each; 100 ml/h), glucose (1 g/kg), or a liver extract (10%; 100 ml/h) failed to elevate plasma levels of PYY. ID administration of glucose at 2 g/kg caused a mild but significant elevation in plasma PYY levels. Intracolonic administration of saline, a fatty acid, an amino acid mixture, glucose, or a liver extract significantly stimulated PYY release. This study suggests that as chyme moves from the stomach to the proximal bowel, fat is the primary constituent of food that stimulates the prompt release of PYY. However, unabsorbed nutrients can release PYY by a direct contact with the PYY-containing cells lining the intestinal lumen of the terminal ileum, colon, and rectum. Both mechanisms probably participate in the release of PYY.
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