A Highly Attenuated Panfilovirus VesiculoVax Vaccine Rapidly Protects Nonhuman Primates Against Marburg Virus and 3 Species of Ebola Virus

Courtney Woolsey, Viktoriya Borisevich, Krystle N. Agans, Rachel O'Toole, Karla A. Fenton, Mack B. Harrison, Abhishek N. Prasad, Daniel J. Deer, Cheryl Gerardi, Nneka Morrison, Robert W. Cross, John H. Eldridge, Demetrius Matassov, Thomas W. Geisbert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background. The family Filoviridae consists of several virus members known to cause significant mortality and disease in humans. Among these, Ebola virus (EBOV), Marburg virus (MARV), Sudan virus (SUDV), and Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) are considered the deadliest. The vaccine, Ervebo, was shown to rapidly protect humans against Ebola disease, but is indicated only for EBOV infections with limited cross-protection against other filoviruses. Whether multivalent formulations of similar recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV)-based vaccines could likewise confer rapid protection is unclear. Methods. Here, we tested the ability of an attenuated, quadrivalent panfilovirus VesiculoVax vaccine (rVSV-Filo) to elicit fast- acting protection against MARV, EBOV, SUDV, and BDBV. Groups of cynomolgus monkeys were vaccinated 7 days before exposure to each of the 4 viral pathogens. All subjects (100%) immunized 1 week earlier survived MARV, SUDV, and BDBV challenge; 80% survived EBOV challenge. Survival correlated with lower viral load, higher glycoprotein-specific immunoglobulin G titers, and the expression of B-cell-, cytotoxic cell-, and antigen presentation-associated transcripts. Conclusions. These results demonstrate multivalent VesiculoVax vaccines are suitable for filovirus outbreak management. The highly attenuated nature of the rVSV-Filo vaccine may be preferable to the Ervebo "delta G"platform, which induced adverse events in a subset of recipients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S660-S670
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Volume228
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 15 2023

Keywords

  • Ebola virus
  • Marburg virus
  • Sudan virus
  • panfilovirus vaccine
  • recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine

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