A Historical Perspective on the Management of Facial Paralysis

Sydney R. Horen, Shahina Gantiwala, Alireza Hamidian Jahromi, Petros Konofaos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Documented evidence of facial nerve paralysis (FNP) and its treatment have been discovered in many early civilizations dating back centuries. Early records are present in art and scripts across ancient civilizations and have laid the groundwork for the implementation of many managements used in modern practice. Although the current management of FNP is still evolving, it includes a complex and multimodal spectrum of options ranging from pharmacologic therapy to facial physical therapy and neuromuscular training, and surgical facial reanimation interventions via static and dynamic procedures. The aim of this review is not to provide an up-to-date glossary of modern management options but rather to discuss the historical evidence of FNP and treatments leading up to current techniques and practices.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)473-478
Number of pages6
JournalAnnals of plastic surgery
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Bell's palsy
  • ancient civilizations
  • facial nerve palsy
  • facial paralysis
  • history

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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