Development of optimal SARS-CoV-2 vaccines to induce potent, long-lasting immunity and provide cross-reactive protection against emerging variants remains a high priority. Here, we report that a modified porous silicon microparticle (mPSM) adjuvant to SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) vaccine activated dendritic cells and generated more potent and durable systemic humoral and type 1 helper T (Th) cell- mediated immune responses than alum-formulated RBD following parenteral vaccination, and protected mice from SARS-CoV-2 and Beta variant challenge. Notably, mPSM facilitated the uptake of SARS-CoV-2 RBD antigens by nasal and airway epithelial cells. Parenteral and intranasal prime and boost vaccinations with mPSM-RBD elicited stronger lung resident T and B cells and IgA responses compared to parenteral vaccination alone, which led to markedly diminished viral loads and inflammation in the lung following SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant challenge. Overall, our results suggest that mPSM is effective adjuvant for SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccine in both systemic and mucosal vaccinations.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Physiology (medical)
- Biochemistry, medical