Purpose: Vascular surgeons are ideally suited to select and perform endovascular interventions either as primary therapy or as an adjunct to bypass surgery. Attaining proficiency in endovascular techniques is an important goal in the training of vascular surgeons. We report our initial experience with a program of endovascular intervention performed in the operating room by vascular surgeons. Methods: During the previous three years, we performed 109 angioplasty procedures, 60 aortoiliac (55%), 32 femoropopliteal (29%), and 17 popliteal/tibial (16%), using guidewires and angioplasty balloons directed by intraoperative digital subtraction C-arm arteriography with road-mapping capabilities. Indications for angioplasty included disabling claudication in 59 patients (54%), rest pain in 18 (17%), and tissue loss in 32 (29%). Angioplasty was accompanied by stent placement in 39 of 60 aortoiliac procedures (65%) and in two of 32 femoral procedures (6%). In 16 cases (15%), the endovascular procedure was performed in conjunction with a bypass procedure. In selected cases (15, 14%), duplex scanning was the sole diagnostic method used before surgery to identify the lesion, eliminating the need for preoperative arteriographic scans. Segmental pressure measurements, duplex ultrasound scans, and treadmill exercise testing as indicated were performed before and after surgery. The efficacy of the endovascular intervention was assessed at 3-month intervals during the first year and at 6-month intervals thereafter. Results: A successful result was defined using criteria recommended by the Ad Hoc Subcommittee on Reporting Standards for Endovascular Procedures from the Society for Vascular Surgery/International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery. This included the combination of symptomatic improvement, obtaining an anatomically successful result with <30% residual lumen stenosis, and elimination of the translesion gradient with an improvement in high thigh- brachial index or ankle-brachial index greater than 0.15. Initial success was achieved in 55 of 60 aortoiliac (92%), 28 of 32 femoropopliteal (88%), and 16 of 17 popliteal/tibial (94%) angioplasty procedures. Clinical follow-up has been achieved in all cases, with continued clinical success rates of 80%, 75%, and 82% for aortoiliac, femoropopliteal, and popliteal/tibial angioplasty procedures, respectively, with a mean follow-up of 15.7 months. Conclusion: These results confirm the value of a program in which C-arm technology was used by vascular surgeons in the performance of angioplasty and stenting procedures in the operating room. This experience in therapeutic endovascular intervention will facilitate the credentialing process for future vascular surgeons.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine