Background. Hyperparathyroidism (HPT) in multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 1 is associated with multiglandular parathyroid disease. Previous retrospective studies comparing subtotal parathyroidectomy (SP) and total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation (TP/AT) have not established clearly better outcomes with either procedure. Methods. Patients were assigned randomly to either SP or TP/AT and data were collected prospectively. The rates of persistent HPT, recurrent HPT, and postoperative hypoparathyroidism were compared. Results. The study cohort included 32 patients randomized to receive either SP or TP/AT (mean followup, 7.5 ± 5.7 years). The overall rate of recurrent HPT was 19% (6/32). Recurrent HPT occurred in 4 of 17 patients (24%) treated with SP and 2 of 15 patients (13%) treated with TP/AT (P = .66). Permanent hypoparathyroidism occurred in 3 of 32 patients (9%) overall. The rate of permanent hypoparathyroidism was 12% in the SP group (2/17) and 7% in the TP/AT group (1/15). A second operation was performed in 4 of 17 patients initially treated with SP (24%), compared with 1 of 15 patients undergoing TP/AT (7%; P = .34). Conclusion. This randomized trial of SP and TP/AT in patients with MEN 1 failed to show any difference in outcomes when comparing results of SP versus TP/AT. Both procedures are associated with acceptable results, but SP may have advantages in that is involves only 1 surgical incision and avoids an obligate period of transient postoperative hypoparathyroidism.
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