A recombinant VSV-vectored vaccine rapidly protects nonhuman primates against lethal Nipah virus disease

Stephanie L. Foster, Courtney Woolsey, Viktoriya Borisevich, Krystle N. Agans, Abhishek N. Prasad, Daniel J. Deer, Joan B. Geisbert, Natalie S. Dobias, Karla A. Fenton, Robert W. Cross, Thomas W. Geisbert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations

Abstract

Nipah virus (NiV) is an emerging highly lethal zoonotic disease that, like SARS-CoV-2, can be transmitted via respiratory droplets. Single-injection vaccines that rapidly control NiV outbreaks are needed. To assess the ability of a vaccine to induce fast-acting protection, we immunized African green monkeys with a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing the Bangladesh strain glycoprotein (NiVBG) of NiV (rVSV-ΔG-NiVBG). Monkeys were challenged 3 or 7 d later with a lethal dose of NiVB. All monkeys vaccinated with rVSV-ΔG-NiVBG 7 d prior to NiVB exposure were protected from lethal disease, while 67% of animals vaccinated 3 d before NiVB challenge survived. Vaccine protection correlated with natural killer cell and cytotoxic T cell transcriptional signatures, whereas lethality was linked to sustained interferon signaling. NiV G-specific antibodies in vaccinated survivors corroborated additional transcriptomic findings, supporting activation of humoral immunity. This study demonstrates that rVSV-based vaccines may have utility in rapidly protecting humans against NiV infection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere2200065119
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume119
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 22 2022

Keywords

  • Henipavirus
  • Nipah virus
  • Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus
  • Rvsv-NiV
  • Vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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