Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (DMAC) infection is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected individuals. The combination antibiotic regimens containing clarithromycin can decrease symptoms and improve survival in patients with DMAC, however, optimal therapy remains to be defined. Quinolones have been widely used in the treatment of DMAC but their utility has not been established. A retrospective cohort study of DMAC infection was established in a metropolitan hospital providing comprehensive care to over 3000 HIV-infected individuals. Medical records of patients with DMAC diagnosed at the Parkland Memorial Hospital from 1991 to 1994 were reviewed for therapeutic regimens for DMAC, concomitant therapy for HIV and Pneumocystis carinii prophylaxis and date of death. Subjects were included if they were treated with clarithromycin and ethambutol. Cases were defined as those patients who received more than 30 days of ciprofloxacin as therapy for DMAC in addition to the other drugs that they received. The primary endpoint was the time to death from the data of DMAC diagnosis. Covariates effecting survival were analysed through the Cox proportional hazards model. Eighty-nine subjects with DMAC who were treated with clarithromycin and ethambutol were identified. Fifty-eight received ciprofloxacin in addition to clarithromycin and ethambutol. The time to death was significantly better in those subjects who were treated with ciprofloxacin than those who were not (489 days vs 281 days, P = 0.01). The sole significant predictor of improved survival on Cox proportional hazards model was ciprofloxacin therapy. Subjects treated with combination of clarithromycin, ethambutol and ciprofloxacin had improved survival over those treated with clarithromycin and ethambutol alone.
- Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex
- Multi-drug antibiotic therapy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Infectious Diseases
- Pharmacology (medical)