A rodent model of mild traumatic brain blast injury

J. R. Perez-Polo, H. C. Rea, K. M. Johnson, M. A. Parsley, G. C. Unabia, G. Y. Xu, Donald Prough, Douglas Dewitt, Heidi Spratt, C. E. Hulsebosch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

One of the criteria defining mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in humans is a loss of consciousness lasting for less than 30 min. mTBI can result in long-term impairment of cognition and behavior. In rats, the length of time it takes a rat to right itself after injury is considered to be an analog for human return to consciousness. This study characterized a rat mild brain blast injury (mBBI) model defined by a righting response reflex time (RRRT) of more than 4 min but less than 10 min. Assessments of motor coordination relying on beam-balance and foot-fault assays and reference memory showed significant impairment in animals exposed to mBBI. This study's hypothesis is that there are inflammatory outcomes to mTBI over time that cause its deleterious effects. For example, mBBI significantly increased brain levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) protein. There were significant inflammatory responses in the cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and amygdala 6 hr after mBBI, as evidenced by increased levels of the inflammatory markers associated with activation of microglia and macrophages, ionized calcium binding adaptor 1 (IBA1), impairment of the blood-brain barrier, and significant neuronal losses. There were significant increases in phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) levels, a putative precursor to the development of neuroencephalopathy, as early as 6 hr after mBBI in the cortex and the hippocampus but not in the thalamus or the amygdala. There was an apparent correlation between RRRTs and p-Tau protein levels but not IBA1. These results suggest potential therapies for mild blast injuries via blockade of the IL-1β and TNFα receptors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)549-561
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Neuroscience Research
Volume93
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2015

Fingerprint

Brain Concussion
Blast Injuries
Rodentia
Brain Injuries
Righting Reflex
Amygdala
Thalamus
Interleukin-1
Hippocampus
Calcium
tau Proteins
Unconsciousness
Macrophage Activation
Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptors
Microglia
Blood-Brain Barrier
Consciousness
Cognition
Foot
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha

Keywords

  • Cytokines
  • Inflammation
  • Memory
  • Mild traumatic blast brain injury
  • Phosphorylated Tau protein
  • Righting reflex response

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Cite this

Perez-Polo, J. R., Rea, H. C., Johnson, K. M., Parsley, M. A., Unabia, G. C., Xu, G. Y., ... Hulsebosch, C. E. (2015). A rodent model of mild traumatic brain blast injury. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 93(4), 549-561. https://doi.org/10.1002/jnr.23513

A rodent model of mild traumatic brain blast injury. / Perez-Polo, J. R.; Rea, H. C.; Johnson, K. M.; Parsley, M. A.; Unabia, G. C.; Xu, G. Y.; Prough, Donald; Dewitt, Douglas; Spratt, Heidi; Hulsebosch, C. E.

In: Journal of Neuroscience Research, Vol. 93, No. 4, 01.04.2015, p. 549-561.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Perez-Polo, JR, Rea, HC, Johnson, KM, Parsley, MA, Unabia, GC, Xu, GY, Prough, D, Dewitt, D, Spratt, H & Hulsebosch, CE 2015, 'A rodent model of mild traumatic brain blast injury', Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 549-561. https://doi.org/10.1002/jnr.23513
Perez-Polo JR, Rea HC, Johnson KM, Parsley MA, Unabia GC, Xu GY et al. A rodent model of mild traumatic brain blast injury. Journal of Neuroscience Research. 2015 Apr 1;93(4):549-561. https://doi.org/10.1002/jnr.23513
Perez-Polo, J. R. ; Rea, H. C. ; Johnson, K. M. ; Parsley, M. A. ; Unabia, G. C. ; Xu, G. Y. ; Prough, Donald ; Dewitt, Douglas ; Spratt, Heidi ; Hulsebosch, C. E. / A rodent model of mild traumatic brain blast injury. In: Journal of Neuroscience Research. 2015 ; Vol. 93, No. 4. pp. 549-561.
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