A simplified method to quantify isoflavones in commercial soybean diets and human urine after legume consumption

L. J W Lu, L. D. Broemeling, M. V. Marshall, V-M Ramanujam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

50 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Reliable and economical quantification of micronutrients in diets and humans is a critical component of successful epidemiological studies to establish relationships between dietary constituents and chronic disease. Legumes are one of the major dietary components consumed by populations worldwide. Consumption of legumes is thought to play a major role in lowering breast and prostate cancer risk. In this study, a simplified method that uses solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography was developed to measure isoflavones at levels down to 10 μg/5 ml. With the use of this method, 12.5 g miso (a soybean paste), 12 ounces Isomil, and 12 ounces soymilk had daidzin/daidzein levels of 2, 5, and 12.4 mg, respectively, and genistin/genistein levels of 3, 6.5, and 13.7 mg, respectively. In these products, most of the isoflavones were present as glucosides. With the same method, urinary levels of isoflavones in six 15-17-year-old subjects were determined after soymilk ingestion. Each subject was placed on unrestricted nonsoya diets, and three 12-ounce portions of soymilk were given at 12-h intervals. Males excreted 15.02 ± 2.74 (SD) mg of daidzein glucuronides/sulfates [mean recovery, 40.4 ± 7.4% (SD)] by 24 h after the third soymilk ingestion, whereas females excreted 25.56 ± 5.10 mg (68.7 ± 13.7%) of daidzein conjugates, which was more than males (P = 0.02). Males and females excreted 7.73 ± 1.95 mg and 9.11 ± 0.84 mg of genistein glucuronides/sulfates (20% recovery of genistin intake), respectively, in the urine. Most of the isoflavones were excreted within 24 h after ingestion. The relative urinary levels of daidzein to genistein excreted were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in females than males after the third ingestion. The observed sex difference requires more study since two of the females are siblings. Thus, the method described can be used to measure isoflavones in soya products and urinary excretion after soya ingestion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)497-503
Number of pages7
JournalCancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention
Volume4
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1995

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Isoflavones
Soybeans
Fabaceae
Eating
Urine
Genistein
Diet
Glucuronides
Sulfates
Soy Foods
Micronutrients
Solid Phase Extraction
Glucosides
Ointments
Sex Characteristics
Gas Chromatography
Epidemiologic Studies
Prostatic Neoplasms
Chronic Disease
Breast Neoplasms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Oncology

Cite this

A simplified method to quantify isoflavones in commercial soybean diets and human urine after legume consumption. / Lu, L. J W; Broemeling, L. D.; Marshall, M. V.; Ramanujam, V-M.

In: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, Vol. 4, No. 5, 1995, p. 497-503.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Reliable and economical quantification of micronutrients in diets and humans is a critical component of successful epidemiological studies to establish relationships between dietary constituents and chronic disease. Legumes are one of the major dietary components consumed by populations worldwide. Consumption of legumes is thought to play a major role in lowering breast and prostate cancer risk. In this study, a simplified method that uses solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography was developed to measure isoflavones at levels down to 10 μg/5 ml. With the use of this method, 12.5 g miso (a soybean paste), 12 ounces Isomil, and 12 ounces soymilk had daidzin/daidzein levels of 2, 5, and 12.4 mg, respectively, and genistin/genistein levels of 3, 6.5, and 13.7 mg, respectively. In these products, most of the isoflavones were present as glucosides. With the same method, urinary levels of isoflavones in six 15-17-year-old subjects were determined after soymilk ingestion. Each subject was placed on unrestricted nonsoya diets, and three 12-ounce portions of soymilk were given at 12-h intervals. Males excreted 15.02 ± 2.74 (SD) mg of daidzein glucuronides/sulfates [mean recovery, 40.4 ± 7.4{\%} (SD)] by 24 h after the third soymilk ingestion, whereas females excreted 25.56 ± 5.10 mg (68.7 ± 13.7{\%}) of daidzein conjugates, which was more than males (P = 0.02). Males and females excreted 7.73 ± 1.95 mg and 9.11 ± 0.84 mg of genistein glucuronides/sulfates (20{\%} recovery of genistin intake), respectively, in the urine. Most of the isoflavones were excreted within 24 h after ingestion. The relative urinary levels of daidzein to genistein excreted were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in females than males after the third ingestion. The observed sex difference requires more study since two of the females are siblings. Thus, the method described can be used to measure isoflavones in soya products and urinary excretion after soya ingestion.",
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