Marburg virus (MARV) causes a severe hemorrhagic fever disease in primates with mortality rates in humans of up to 90%. MARV has been identified as a category A bioterrorism agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and priority pathogen A by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), needing urgent research and development of countermeasures because of the high public health risk it poses. The recent cases of MARV in West Africa underscore the substantial outbreak potential of this virus. The potential for cross-border spread, as had occurred during the 2014-2016 Ebola virus outbreak, illustrates the critical need for MARV vaccines. To support regulatory approval of the chimpanzee adenovirus 3 (ChAd3)-MARV vaccine that has completed phase 1 trials, we showed that the nonreplicating ChAd3 vector, which has a demonstrated safety profile in humans, protected against a uniformly lethal challenge with MARV/Ang. Protective immunity was achieved within 7 days of vaccination and was maintained through 1 year after vaccination. Antigen-specific antibodies were an immune correlate of protection in the acute challenge model, and their concentration was predictive of protection. These results demonstrate that a single-shot ChAd3-MARV vaccine generated a protective immune response that was both rapid and durable with an immune correlate of protection that will support advanced clinical development.
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