A spectroscopic investigation of the formation mechanism of pigment gallstones

J. G. Wu, X. S. Zhou, Z. Xu, T. Shen, Y. Z. Xu, W. H. Li, D. F. Xu, R. D. Soloway, E. Wentrup-Byrne, Z. H. Xu, J. S. Shi, C. R. Shen, S. Q. Deng, X. F. Li, N. Shi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Further spectroscopic studies of gallstones are reviewed with an emphasis on the formation of black pigment gallstones. This type of gallstone appears mainly in Western countries, with only 3% of the cholelithiasis patients in China having black gallstones. Fourier transform infrared absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance are used as spectroscopic probes of gallstones and their metal bilirubinate components. Nonlinear phenomena in gallstone formation were investigated through the appearance of ring structure in gallstones and fractal patterns in the formation in the precipitates of bile salt systems. Although a complete understanding of gallstone formation has not yet been achieved, interesting progress toward this goal has been made recently.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)381-391
Number of pages11
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1997
Externally publishedYes


  • Black pigment gallstone
  • EPR
  • FTIR
  • Nonlinear phenomena
  • Vibrational mode

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology


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