Achieving consistent multiple daily low-dose Bacillus anthracis spore inhalation exposures in the rabbit model.

Roy E. Barnewall, Jason E. Comer, Brian D. Miller, Bradford W. Gutting, Daniel N. Wolfe, Alison E. Director-Myska, Tonya L. Nichols, Sarah C. Taft

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Repeated low-level exposures to biological agents could occur before or after the remediation of an environmental release. This is especially true for persistent agents such as B. anthracis spores, the causative agent of anthrax. Studies were conducted to examine aerosol methods needed for consistent daily low aerosol concentrations to deliver a low-dose (less than 10(6) colony forming units (CFU) of B. anthracis spores) and included a pilot feasibility characterization study, acute exposure study, and a multiple 15 day exposure study. This manuscript focuses on the state-of-the-science aerosol methodologies used to generate and aerosolize consistent daily low aerosol concentrations and resultant low inhalation doses to rabbits. The pilot feasibility characterization study determined that the aerosol system was consistent and capable of producing very low aerosol concentrations. In the acute, single day exposure experiment, targeted inhaled doses of 1 × 10(2), 1 × 10(3), 1 × 10(4), and 1 × 10(5) CFU were used. In the multiple daily exposure experiment, rabbits were exposed multiple days to targeted inhaled doses of 1 × 10(2), 1 × 10(3), and 1 × 10(4) CFU. In all studies, targeted inhaled doses remained consistent from rabbit-to-rabbit and day-to-day. The aerosol system produced aerosolized spores within the optimal mass median aerodynamic diameter particle size range to reach deep lung alveoli. Consistency of the inhaled dose was aided by monitoring and recording respiratory parameters during the exposure with real-time plethysmography. Overall, the presented results show that the animal aerosol system was stable and highly reproducible between different studies and over multiple exposure days.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)71
Number of pages1
JournalFrontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
StatePublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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