Activated and memory T lymphocytes in human milk

Daniel P. Wirt, Linda T. Adkins, Kimberly H. Palkowetz, Frank C. Schmalstieg, Armond S. Goldman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

105 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Since activated macrophages and cytokines are found in human milk (HM), a flow cytometry study was conducted to determine whether T cells in HM display phenotypic markers of recent or previous activation. HM was collected during the first 3 d of lactation. The Paint‐a‐Gate program was used to optimize gating on the lymphocyte population. A mean ± 1 SD of 4 ± 3% of total HM leukocytes were lymphocytes and 96 ± 3% were macrophages and granulocytes (N=33 subjects). HM lymphocyte populations were further analyzed in five subjects. T calls (CD3+) represented 83 ± 11% and B cells (CD19+) were 6 ± 4% of HM lymphocytes. The mean CD4/CD8 ratio of T cells in HM was 0.88 (range 0.40–1.25). This ratio was significantly decreased compared to the peripheral blood (PB) of control adults (P < 0.02) and postpartum women (P < 0.02), due mostly to a significant increase in CD8+ CD3+ cells in HM compared to the PB of control adults (P < 0.002) and postpartum women (P < 0.05). T cells bearing markers of recent activation were significantly increased in HM compared to the PB of control adults: 85 ± 7% of CD3+ cells in HM were HLA‐DR+ (controls, 10 ± 4%; P < 0.001), and 15 ± 6% of CD3+ cells in HM were IL‐2R+ (controls, 6 ± 2%; P < 0.001). Subpopulations of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in HM defined by the T200 isoforms CD45RA and CD45RO were markedly altered compared to PB, indicating a striking shift from virginal to antigen‐primed (memory) T cells in HM and suggesting certain functional capacities for these cells. Virtually all CD4+ cells (99.8 ± 0.4%) and 92 ± 5% of CD8+ cells in HM were CD45R0+ (vs. 71 ± 12% and 50 ± 10%, respectively, in the PB of postpartum women; P < 0.001). CD4+ and CDS8+ cells expressing CD45RA were correspondingly markedly reduced (P < 0.001). This phenotypic pattern of T cells in HM may result from T cell activating substances in HM and/or selective homing of T cells to the breast. Conversely, activated T cells in HM may be responsible for cytokines in HM. These activated and memory T cell populations may be transferred to the infant via breastfeeding.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)282-290
Number of pages9
JournalCytometry
Volume13
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 1992

Fingerprint

Human Milk
T-Lymphocytes
Lymphocytes
Postpartum Period
Macrophages
Cytokines
Population
CD4-CD8 Ratio
Breast Feeding
Lactation
Granulocytes

Keywords

  • flow cytometry
  • Human milk immunology
  • leukocyte common antigen isoforms
  • markers of activation
  • T lymphocyte subsets

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Biophysics
  • Hematology
  • Endocrinology
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

Wirt, D. P., Adkins, L. T., Palkowetz, K. H., Schmalstieg, F. C., & Goldman, A. S. (1992). Activated and memory T lymphocytes in human milk. Cytometry, 13(3), 282-290. https://doi.org/10.1002/cyto.990130310

Activated and memory T lymphocytes in human milk. / Wirt, Daniel P.; Adkins, Linda T.; Palkowetz, Kimberly H.; Schmalstieg, Frank C.; Goldman, Armond S.

In: Cytometry, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1992, p. 282-290.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wirt, DP, Adkins, LT, Palkowetz, KH, Schmalstieg, FC & Goldman, AS 1992, 'Activated and memory T lymphocytes in human milk', Cytometry, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 282-290. https://doi.org/10.1002/cyto.990130310
Wirt DP, Adkins LT, Palkowetz KH, Schmalstieg FC, Goldman AS. Activated and memory T lymphocytes in human milk. Cytometry. 1992;13(3):282-290. https://doi.org/10.1002/cyto.990130310
Wirt, Daniel P. ; Adkins, Linda T. ; Palkowetz, Kimberly H. ; Schmalstieg, Frank C. ; Goldman, Armond S. / Activated and memory T lymphocytes in human milk. In: Cytometry. 1992 ; Vol. 13, No. 3. pp. 282-290.
@article{e7376cf501a546edb4c4c22dd05eca11,
title = "Activated and memory T lymphocytes in human milk",
abstract = "Since activated macrophages and cytokines are found in human milk (HM), a flow cytometry study was conducted to determine whether T cells in HM display phenotypic markers of recent or previous activation. HM was collected during the first 3 d of lactation. The Paint‐a‐Gate program was used to optimize gating on the lymphocyte population. A mean ± 1 SD of 4 ± 3{\%} of total HM leukocytes were lymphocytes and 96 ± 3{\%} were macrophages and granulocytes (N=33 subjects). HM lymphocyte populations were further analyzed in five subjects. T calls (CD3+) represented 83 ± 11{\%} and B cells (CD19+) were 6 ± 4{\%} of HM lymphocytes. The mean CD4/CD8 ratio of T cells in HM was 0.88 (range 0.40–1.25). This ratio was significantly decreased compared to the peripheral blood (PB) of control adults (P < 0.02) and postpartum women (P < 0.02), due mostly to a significant increase in CD8+ CD3+ cells in HM compared to the PB of control adults (P < 0.002) and postpartum women (P < 0.05). T cells bearing markers of recent activation were significantly increased in HM compared to the PB of control adults: 85 ± 7{\%} of CD3+ cells in HM were HLA‐DR+ (controls, 10 ± 4{\%}; P < 0.001), and 15 ± 6{\%} of CD3+ cells in HM were IL‐2R+ (controls, 6 ± 2{\%}; P < 0.001). Subpopulations of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in HM defined by the T200 isoforms CD45RA and CD45RO were markedly altered compared to PB, indicating a striking shift from virginal to antigen‐primed (memory) T cells in HM and suggesting certain functional capacities for these cells. Virtually all CD4+ cells (99.8 ± 0.4{\%}) and 92 ± 5{\%} of CD8+ cells in HM were CD45R0+ (vs. 71 ± 12{\%} and 50 ± 10{\%}, respectively, in the PB of postpartum women; P < 0.001). CD4+ and CDS8+ cells expressing CD45RA were correspondingly markedly reduced (P < 0.001). This phenotypic pattern of T cells in HM may result from T cell activating substances in HM and/or selective homing of T cells to the breast. Conversely, activated T cells in HM may be responsible for cytokines in HM. These activated and memory T cell populations may be transferred to the infant via breastfeeding.",
keywords = "flow cytometry, Human milk immunology, leukocyte common antigen isoforms, markers of activation, T lymphocyte subsets",
author = "Wirt, {Daniel P.} and Adkins, {Linda T.} and Palkowetz, {Kimberly H.} and Schmalstieg, {Frank C.} and Goldman, {Armond S.}",
year = "1992",
doi = "10.1002/cyto.990130310",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "13",
pages = "282--290",
journal = "Communications in Clinical Cytometry",
issn = "0196-4763",
publisher = "John Wiley and Sons Inc.",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Activated and memory T lymphocytes in human milk

AU - Wirt, Daniel P.

AU - Adkins, Linda T.

AU - Palkowetz, Kimberly H.

AU - Schmalstieg, Frank C.

AU - Goldman, Armond S.

PY - 1992

Y1 - 1992

N2 - Since activated macrophages and cytokines are found in human milk (HM), a flow cytometry study was conducted to determine whether T cells in HM display phenotypic markers of recent or previous activation. HM was collected during the first 3 d of lactation. The Paint‐a‐Gate program was used to optimize gating on the lymphocyte population. A mean ± 1 SD of 4 ± 3% of total HM leukocytes were lymphocytes and 96 ± 3% were macrophages and granulocytes (N=33 subjects). HM lymphocyte populations were further analyzed in five subjects. T calls (CD3+) represented 83 ± 11% and B cells (CD19+) were 6 ± 4% of HM lymphocytes. The mean CD4/CD8 ratio of T cells in HM was 0.88 (range 0.40–1.25). This ratio was significantly decreased compared to the peripheral blood (PB) of control adults (P < 0.02) and postpartum women (P < 0.02), due mostly to a significant increase in CD8+ CD3+ cells in HM compared to the PB of control adults (P < 0.002) and postpartum women (P < 0.05). T cells bearing markers of recent activation were significantly increased in HM compared to the PB of control adults: 85 ± 7% of CD3+ cells in HM were HLA‐DR+ (controls, 10 ± 4%; P < 0.001), and 15 ± 6% of CD3+ cells in HM were IL‐2R+ (controls, 6 ± 2%; P < 0.001). Subpopulations of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in HM defined by the T200 isoforms CD45RA and CD45RO were markedly altered compared to PB, indicating a striking shift from virginal to antigen‐primed (memory) T cells in HM and suggesting certain functional capacities for these cells. Virtually all CD4+ cells (99.8 ± 0.4%) and 92 ± 5% of CD8+ cells in HM were CD45R0+ (vs. 71 ± 12% and 50 ± 10%, respectively, in the PB of postpartum women; P < 0.001). CD4+ and CDS8+ cells expressing CD45RA were correspondingly markedly reduced (P < 0.001). This phenotypic pattern of T cells in HM may result from T cell activating substances in HM and/or selective homing of T cells to the breast. Conversely, activated T cells in HM may be responsible for cytokines in HM. These activated and memory T cell populations may be transferred to the infant via breastfeeding.

AB - Since activated macrophages and cytokines are found in human milk (HM), a flow cytometry study was conducted to determine whether T cells in HM display phenotypic markers of recent or previous activation. HM was collected during the first 3 d of lactation. The Paint‐a‐Gate program was used to optimize gating on the lymphocyte population. A mean ± 1 SD of 4 ± 3% of total HM leukocytes were lymphocytes and 96 ± 3% were macrophages and granulocytes (N=33 subjects). HM lymphocyte populations were further analyzed in five subjects. T calls (CD3+) represented 83 ± 11% and B cells (CD19+) were 6 ± 4% of HM lymphocytes. The mean CD4/CD8 ratio of T cells in HM was 0.88 (range 0.40–1.25). This ratio was significantly decreased compared to the peripheral blood (PB) of control adults (P < 0.02) and postpartum women (P < 0.02), due mostly to a significant increase in CD8+ CD3+ cells in HM compared to the PB of control adults (P < 0.002) and postpartum women (P < 0.05). T cells bearing markers of recent activation were significantly increased in HM compared to the PB of control adults: 85 ± 7% of CD3+ cells in HM were HLA‐DR+ (controls, 10 ± 4%; P < 0.001), and 15 ± 6% of CD3+ cells in HM were IL‐2R+ (controls, 6 ± 2%; P < 0.001). Subpopulations of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in HM defined by the T200 isoforms CD45RA and CD45RO were markedly altered compared to PB, indicating a striking shift from virginal to antigen‐primed (memory) T cells in HM and suggesting certain functional capacities for these cells. Virtually all CD4+ cells (99.8 ± 0.4%) and 92 ± 5% of CD8+ cells in HM were CD45R0+ (vs. 71 ± 12% and 50 ± 10%, respectively, in the PB of postpartum women; P < 0.001). CD4+ and CDS8+ cells expressing CD45RA were correspondingly markedly reduced (P < 0.001). This phenotypic pattern of T cells in HM may result from T cell activating substances in HM and/or selective homing of T cells to the breast. Conversely, activated T cells in HM may be responsible for cytokines in HM. These activated and memory T cell populations may be transferred to the infant via breastfeeding.

KW - flow cytometry

KW - Human milk immunology

KW - leukocyte common antigen isoforms

KW - markers of activation

KW - T lymphocyte subsets

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0026509308&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0026509308&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/cyto.990130310

DO - 10.1002/cyto.990130310

M3 - Article

C2 - 1533582

AN - SCOPUS:0026509308

VL - 13

SP - 282

EP - 290

JO - Communications in Clinical Cytometry

JF - Communications in Clinical Cytometry

SN - 0196-4763

IS - 3

ER -