Acute and chronic safety and efficacy of dose dependent creatine nitrate supplementation and exercise performance

Elfego Galvan, Dillon K. Walker, Sunday Y. Simbo, Ryan Dalton, Kyle Levers, Abigail O'Connor, Chelsea Goodenough, Nicholas D. Barringer, Mike Greenwood, Christopher Rasmussen, Stephen B. Smith, Steven E. Riechman, James D. Fluckey, Peter S. Murano, Conrad P. Earnest, Richard B. Kreider

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Creatine monohydrate (CrM) and nitrate are popular supplements for improving exercise performance; yet have not been investigated in combination. We performed two studies to determine the safety and exercise performance-characteristics of creatine nitrate (CrN) supplementation. Methods: Study 1 participants (N = 13) ingested 1.5 g CrN (CrN-Low), 3 g CrN (CrN-High), 5 g CrM or a placebo in a randomized, crossover study (7d washout) to determine supplement safety (hepatorenal and muscle enzymes, heart rate, blood pressure and side effects) measured at time-0 (unsupplemented), 30-min, and then hourly for 5-h post-ingestion. Study 2 participants (N = 48) received the same CrN treatments vs. 3 g CrM in a randomized, double-blind, 28d trial inclusive of a 7-d interim testing period and loading sequence (4 servings/d). Day-7 and d-28 measured Tendo™ bench press performance, Wingate testing and a 6x6-s bicycle ergometer sprint. Data were analyzed using a GLM and results are reported as mean ± SD or mean change ± 95 % CI. Results: In both studies we observed several significant, yet stochastic changes in blood markers that were not indicative of potential harm or consistent for any treatment group. Equally, all treatment groups reported a similar number of minimal side effects. In Study 2, there was a significant increase in plasma nitrates for both CrN groups by d-7, subsequently abating by d-28. Muscle creatine increased significantly by d-7 in the CrM and CrN-High groups, but then decreased by d-28 for CrN-High. By d-28, there were significant increases in bench press lifting volume (kg) for all groups (PLA, 126.6, 95 % CI 26.3, 226.8; CrM, 194.1, 95 % CI 89.0, 299.2; CrN-Low, 118.3, 95 % CI 26.1, 210.5; CrN-High, 267.2, 95 % CI 175.0, 359.4, kg). Only the CrN-High group was significantly greater than PLA (p <0.05). Similar findings were observed for bench press peak power (PLA, 59.0, 95 % CI 4.5, 113.4; CrM, 68.6, 95 % CI 11.4, 125.8; CrN-Low, 40.9, 95 % CI -9.2, 91.0; CrN-High, 60.9, 95 % CI 10.8, 111.1, W) and average power. Conclusions: Creatine nitrate delivered at 3 g was well-tolerated, demonstrated similar performance benefits to 3 g CrM, in addition, within the confines of this study, there were no safety concerns.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number12
JournalJournal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Volume13
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 31 2016
Externally publishedYes

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creatine
Creatine
Nitrates
exercise
nitrates
Safety
dosage
adverse effects

Keywords

  • Creatine
  • Creatine nitrate
  • Exercise performance
  • Nitrate
  • Nutrition
  • Supplementation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Food Science

Cite this

Acute and chronic safety and efficacy of dose dependent creatine nitrate supplementation and exercise performance. / Galvan, Elfego; Walker, Dillon K.; Simbo, Sunday Y.; Dalton, Ryan; Levers, Kyle; O'Connor, Abigail; Goodenough, Chelsea; Barringer, Nicholas D.; Greenwood, Mike; Rasmussen, Christopher; Smith, Stephen B.; Riechman, Steven E.; Fluckey, James D.; Murano, Peter S.; Earnest, Conrad P.; Kreider, Richard B.

In: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, Vol. 13, No. 1, 12, 31.03.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Galvan, E, Walker, DK, Simbo, SY, Dalton, R, Levers, K, O'Connor, A, Goodenough, C, Barringer, ND, Greenwood, M, Rasmussen, C, Smith, SB, Riechman, SE, Fluckey, JD, Murano, PS, Earnest, CP & Kreider, RB 2016, 'Acute and chronic safety and efficacy of dose dependent creatine nitrate supplementation and exercise performance', Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, vol. 13, no. 1, 12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12970-016-0124-0
Galvan, Elfego ; Walker, Dillon K. ; Simbo, Sunday Y. ; Dalton, Ryan ; Levers, Kyle ; O'Connor, Abigail ; Goodenough, Chelsea ; Barringer, Nicholas D. ; Greenwood, Mike ; Rasmussen, Christopher ; Smith, Stephen B. ; Riechman, Steven E. ; Fluckey, James D. ; Murano, Peter S. ; Earnest, Conrad P. ; Kreider, Richard B. / Acute and chronic safety and efficacy of dose dependent creatine nitrate supplementation and exercise performance. In: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2016 ; Vol. 13, No. 1.
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abstract = "Background: Creatine monohydrate (CrM) and nitrate are popular supplements for improving exercise performance; yet have not been investigated in combination. We performed two studies to determine the safety and exercise performance-characteristics of creatine nitrate (CrN) supplementation. Methods: Study 1 participants (N = 13) ingested 1.5 g CrN (CrN-Low), 3 g CrN (CrN-High), 5 g CrM or a placebo in a randomized, crossover study (7d washout) to determine supplement safety (hepatorenal and muscle enzymes, heart rate, blood pressure and side effects) measured at time-0 (unsupplemented), 30-min, and then hourly for 5-h post-ingestion. Study 2 participants (N = 48) received the same CrN treatments vs. 3 g CrM in a randomized, double-blind, 28d trial inclusive of a 7-d interim testing period and loading sequence (4 servings/d). Day-7 and d-28 measured Tendo™ bench press performance, Wingate testing and a 6x6-s bicycle ergometer sprint. Data were analyzed using a GLM and results are reported as mean ± SD or mean change ± 95 {\%} CI. Results: In both studies we observed several significant, yet stochastic changes in blood markers that were not indicative of potential harm or consistent for any treatment group. Equally, all treatment groups reported a similar number of minimal side effects. In Study 2, there was a significant increase in plasma nitrates for both CrN groups by d-7, subsequently abating by d-28. Muscle creatine increased significantly by d-7 in the CrM and CrN-High groups, but then decreased by d-28 for CrN-High. By d-28, there were significant increases in bench press lifting volume (kg) for all groups (PLA, 126.6, 95 {\%} CI 26.3, 226.8; CrM, 194.1, 95 {\%} CI 89.0, 299.2; CrN-Low, 118.3, 95 {\%} CI 26.1, 210.5; CrN-High, 267.2, 95 {\%} CI 175.0, 359.4, kg). Only the CrN-High group was significantly greater than PLA (p <0.05). Similar findings were observed for bench press peak power (PLA, 59.0, 95 {\%} CI 4.5, 113.4; CrM, 68.6, 95 {\%} CI 11.4, 125.8; CrN-Low, 40.9, 95 {\%} CI -9.2, 91.0; CrN-High, 60.9, 95 {\%} CI 10.8, 111.1, W) and average power. Conclusions: Creatine nitrate delivered at 3 g was well-tolerated, demonstrated similar performance benefits to 3 g CrM, in addition, within the confines of this study, there were no safety concerns.",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Acute and chronic safety and efficacy of dose dependent creatine nitrate supplementation and exercise performance

AU - Galvan, Elfego

AU - Walker, Dillon K.

AU - Simbo, Sunday Y.

AU - Dalton, Ryan

AU - Levers, Kyle

AU - O'Connor, Abigail

AU - Goodenough, Chelsea

AU - Barringer, Nicholas D.

AU - Greenwood, Mike

AU - Rasmussen, Christopher

AU - Smith, Stephen B.

AU - Riechman, Steven E.

AU - Fluckey, James D.

AU - Murano, Peter S.

AU - Earnest, Conrad P.

AU - Kreider, Richard B.

PY - 2016/3/31

Y1 - 2016/3/31

N2 - Background: Creatine monohydrate (CrM) and nitrate are popular supplements for improving exercise performance; yet have not been investigated in combination. We performed two studies to determine the safety and exercise performance-characteristics of creatine nitrate (CrN) supplementation. Methods: Study 1 participants (N = 13) ingested 1.5 g CrN (CrN-Low), 3 g CrN (CrN-High), 5 g CrM or a placebo in a randomized, crossover study (7d washout) to determine supplement safety (hepatorenal and muscle enzymes, heart rate, blood pressure and side effects) measured at time-0 (unsupplemented), 30-min, and then hourly for 5-h post-ingestion. Study 2 participants (N = 48) received the same CrN treatments vs. 3 g CrM in a randomized, double-blind, 28d trial inclusive of a 7-d interim testing period and loading sequence (4 servings/d). Day-7 and d-28 measured Tendo™ bench press performance, Wingate testing and a 6x6-s bicycle ergometer sprint. Data were analyzed using a GLM and results are reported as mean ± SD or mean change ± 95 % CI. Results: In both studies we observed several significant, yet stochastic changes in blood markers that were not indicative of potential harm or consistent for any treatment group. Equally, all treatment groups reported a similar number of minimal side effects. In Study 2, there was a significant increase in plasma nitrates for both CrN groups by d-7, subsequently abating by d-28. Muscle creatine increased significantly by d-7 in the CrM and CrN-High groups, but then decreased by d-28 for CrN-High. By d-28, there were significant increases in bench press lifting volume (kg) for all groups (PLA, 126.6, 95 % CI 26.3, 226.8; CrM, 194.1, 95 % CI 89.0, 299.2; CrN-Low, 118.3, 95 % CI 26.1, 210.5; CrN-High, 267.2, 95 % CI 175.0, 359.4, kg). Only the CrN-High group was significantly greater than PLA (p <0.05). Similar findings were observed for bench press peak power (PLA, 59.0, 95 % CI 4.5, 113.4; CrM, 68.6, 95 % CI 11.4, 125.8; CrN-Low, 40.9, 95 % CI -9.2, 91.0; CrN-High, 60.9, 95 % CI 10.8, 111.1, W) and average power. Conclusions: Creatine nitrate delivered at 3 g was well-tolerated, demonstrated similar performance benefits to 3 g CrM, in addition, within the confines of this study, there were no safety concerns.

AB - Background: Creatine monohydrate (CrM) and nitrate are popular supplements for improving exercise performance; yet have not been investigated in combination. We performed two studies to determine the safety and exercise performance-characteristics of creatine nitrate (CrN) supplementation. Methods: Study 1 participants (N = 13) ingested 1.5 g CrN (CrN-Low), 3 g CrN (CrN-High), 5 g CrM or a placebo in a randomized, crossover study (7d washout) to determine supplement safety (hepatorenal and muscle enzymes, heart rate, blood pressure and side effects) measured at time-0 (unsupplemented), 30-min, and then hourly for 5-h post-ingestion. Study 2 participants (N = 48) received the same CrN treatments vs. 3 g CrM in a randomized, double-blind, 28d trial inclusive of a 7-d interim testing period and loading sequence (4 servings/d). Day-7 and d-28 measured Tendo™ bench press performance, Wingate testing and a 6x6-s bicycle ergometer sprint. Data were analyzed using a GLM and results are reported as mean ± SD or mean change ± 95 % CI. Results: In both studies we observed several significant, yet stochastic changes in blood markers that were not indicative of potential harm or consistent for any treatment group. Equally, all treatment groups reported a similar number of minimal side effects. In Study 2, there was a significant increase in plasma nitrates for both CrN groups by d-7, subsequently abating by d-28. Muscle creatine increased significantly by d-7 in the CrM and CrN-High groups, but then decreased by d-28 for CrN-High. By d-28, there were significant increases in bench press lifting volume (kg) for all groups (PLA, 126.6, 95 % CI 26.3, 226.8; CrM, 194.1, 95 % CI 89.0, 299.2; CrN-Low, 118.3, 95 % CI 26.1, 210.5; CrN-High, 267.2, 95 % CI 175.0, 359.4, kg). Only the CrN-High group was significantly greater than PLA (p <0.05). Similar findings were observed for bench press peak power (PLA, 59.0, 95 % CI 4.5, 113.4; CrM, 68.6, 95 % CI 11.4, 125.8; CrN-Low, 40.9, 95 % CI -9.2, 91.0; CrN-High, 60.9, 95 % CI 10.8, 111.1, W) and average power. Conclusions: Creatine nitrate delivered at 3 g was well-tolerated, demonstrated similar performance benefits to 3 g CrM, in addition, within the confines of this study, there were no safety concerns.

KW - Creatine

KW - Creatine nitrate

KW - Exercise performance

KW - Nitrate

KW - Nutrition

KW - Supplementation

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