Study objective: The primary aim of the proposed study was to determine the association between postoperative pain and breastfeeding after cesarean delivery during hospital stay. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Postoperative recovery area and operating room. Patients: Data was obtained on singleton pregnancies undergoing scheduled cesarean deliveries under spinal anesthesia between 2013 and 2016. Interventions: Determine the association between postoperative pain and breastfeeding after cesarean delivery. Measurements: Postoperative pain score, breastfeeding, LATCH score post-partum depression and length of stay values collected. Main results: The dataset consisted of electronic medical records from 5350 patients. We found that the pain score is negatively associated with the LATCH score; higher pain was associated with lower LATCH scores, −0.01 [−0.01,-0.00], p <.0402. Every one-point increase in average pain score was associated with a 21% reduction in the odds of in-hospital exclusive breast-feeding relative to exclusive formula-feeding, OR = 0.79 [0.70–0.90], p <.0002. We observed that the post-partum depression status was associated with the average postoperative pain score, F (1, 5347) = 41.51, p <.0001. We also found a significant positive association between the average pain score and the duration of hospital stay (p <.0001); every one-point increase in the average pain-score was associated with a 7.98 [6.28, 9.68] hour increase in length of stay. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate significant association between the increase in post-cesarean pain scores and deterioration of breastfeeding initiation while also exposing slight reductions in the quality of breastfeeding. Additionally, we found that increases in post-cesarean pain scores also positively associate with postpartum depression and duration of stay, with each increase in pain score resulted in an almost one-day increase in the length of stay.
- Exclusive breastfeeding
- Post-partum depression
- Postcesarean pain
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine