Age at Death, Season, and Day of Death as Indicators of the Effect of the Back to Sleep Program on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome in the United States, 1992-1999

Michael Malloy, Daniel H. Freeman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

35 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: In June 1992, the American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Infant Positioning and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) made its first recommendation concerning placing infants in a supine position. Since the publication of this recommendation, SIDS rates in the United States have declined 44%. Before this recommendation, SIDS had a marked seasonal pattern and was noted to occur more frequently on weekends. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if significant changes in SIDS rates have occurred in age at death (0-27 days vs 1-6 months vs 7-11 months), season of death, and weekday of death since the implementation of the recommendations for supine positioning of infants for sleep. Design: United States natality and mortality data were used for the years 1992 through 1994. United States linked infant birth and death certificate files were used for the years 1995 through 1999. Season of death was calculated from month of death and was ordered for analysis from winter to fall to spring to summer; day of death was ordered from Monday to Sunday and additionally analyzed as weekend (Saturday and Sunday) vs weekday (Monday through Friday). Results: During the 8 years, 28548 deaths were attributed to SIDS among residents of the United States. The average annual decrease in the SIDS rate for neonates aged 0 to 27 days was 6.6%; for infants aged 1 to 6 months, 9.0%; and for infants aged 7 to 11 months, 6.1%. The average decline in seasonal rates from winter to summer was 11.2% per season. A significant interaction between year of death and season indicated a diminishing rate of seasonal variation. The odds ratio for weekend vs week-day SIDS deaths was 0.98 (95% confidence interval, 0.96-1.01). There was no significant interaction between year of death and weekday of death, which indicates no change in the relationship since the implementation of the supine sleeping recommendations. Conclusions: These data provide insights into the effect of the supine sleep recommendations on SIDS. The reduction in seasonal variation of SIDS suggests advantages conferred by supine sleeping in colder seasons.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)359-365
Number of pages7
JournalArchives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
Volume158
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2004

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Sudden Infant Death
Sleep
Mortality
Birth Certificates
Death Certificates
Supine Position
Advisory Committees
Publications
Odds Ratio
Newborn Infant
Confidence Intervals
Pediatrics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Cite this

@article{0f0bf07326a0482699d3581bed424a66,
title = "Age at Death, Season, and Day of Death as Indicators of the Effect of the Back to Sleep Program on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome in the United States, 1992-1999",
abstract = "Background: In June 1992, the American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Infant Positioning and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) made its first recommendation concerning placing infants in a supine position. Since the publication of this recommendation, SIDS rates in the United States have declined 44{\%}. Before this recommendation, SIDS had a marked seasonal pattern and was noted to occur more frequently on weekends. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if significant changes in SIDS rates have occurred in age at death (0-27 days vs 1-6 months vs 7-11 months), season of death, and weekday of death since the implementation of the recommendations for supine positioning of infants for sleep. Design: United States natality and mortality data were used for the years 1992 through 1994. United States linked infant birth and death certificate files were used for the years 1995 through 1999. Season of death was calculated from month of death and was ordered for analysis from winter to fall to spring to summer; day of death was ordered from Monday to Sunday and additionally analyzed as weekend (Saturday and Sunday) vs weekday (Monday through Friday). Results: During the 8 years, 28548 deaths were attributed to SIDS among residents of the United States. The average annual decrease in the SIDS rate for neonates aged 0 to 27 days was 6.6{\%}; for infants aged 1 to 6 months, 9.0{\%}; and for infants aged 7 to 11 months, 6.1{\%}. The average decline in seasonal rates from winter to summer was 11.2{\%} per season. A significant interaction between year of death and season indicated a diminishing rate of seasonal variation. The odds ratio for weekend vs week-day SIDS deaths was 0.98 (95{\%} confidence interval, 0.96-1.01). There was no significant interaction between year of death and weekday of death, which indicates no change in the relationship since the implementation of the supine sleeping recommendations. Conclusions: These data provide insights into the effect of the supine sleep recommendations on SIDS. The reduction in seasonal variation of SIDS suggests advantages conferred by supine sleeping in colder seasons.",
author = "Michael Malloy and Freeman, {Daniel H.}",
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doi = "10.1001/archpedi.158.4.359",
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T1 - Age at Death, Season, and Day of Death as Indicators of the Effect of the Back to Sleep Program on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome in the United States, 1992-1999

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AU - Freeman, Daniel H.

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N2 - Background: In June 1992, the American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Infant Positioning and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) made its first recommendation concerning placing infants in a supine position. Since the publication of this recommendation, SIDS rates in the United States have declined 44%. Before this recommendation, SIDS had a marked seasonal pattern and was noted to occur more frequently on weekends. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if significant changes in SIDS rates have occurred in age at death (0-27 days vs 1-6 months vs 7-11 months), season of death, and weekday of death since the implementation of the recommendations for supine positioning of infants for sleep. Design: United States natality and mortality data were used for the years 1992 through 1994. United States linked infant birth and death certificate files were used for the years 1995 through 1999. Season of death was calculated from month of death and was ordered for analysis from winter to fall to spring to summer; day of death was ordered from Monday to Sunday and additionally analyzed as weekend (Saturday and Sunday) vs weekday (Monday through Friday). Results: During the 8 years, 28548 deaths were attributed to SIDS among residents of the United States. The average annual decrease in the SIDS rate for neonates aged 0 to 27 days was 6.6%; for infants aged 1 to 6 months, 9.0%; and for infants aged 7 to 11 months, 6.1%. The average decline in seasonal rates from winter to summer was 11.2% per season. A significant interaction between year of death and season indicated a diminishing rate of seasonal variation. The odds ratio for weekend vs week-day SIDS deaths was 0.98 (95% confidence interval, 0.96-1.01). There was no significant interaction between year of death and weekday of death, which indicates no change in the relationship since the implementation of the supine sleeping recommendations. Conclusions: These data provide insights into the effect of the supine sleep recommendations on SIDS. The reduction in seasonal variation of SIDS suggests advantages conferred by supine sleeping in colder seasons.

AB - Background: In June 1992, the American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Infant Positioning and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) made its first recommendation concerning placing infants in a supine position. Since the publication of this recommendation, SIDS rates in the United States have declined 44%. Before this recommendation, SIDS had a marked seasonal pattern and was noted to occur more frequently on weekends. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if significant changes in SIDS rates have occurred in age at death (0-27 days vs 1-6 months vs 7-11 months), season of death, and weekday of death since the implementation of the recommendations for supine positioning of infants for sleep. Design: United States natality and mortality data were used for the years 1992 through 1994. United States linked infant birth and death certificate files were used for the years 1995 through 1999. Season of death was calculated from month of death and was ordered for analysis from winter to fall to spring to summer; day of death was ordered from Monday to Sunday and additionally analyzed as weekend (Saturday and Sunday) vs weekday (Monday through Friday). Results: During the 8 years, 28548 deaths were attributed to SIDS among residents of the United States. The average annual decrease in the SIDS rate for neonates aged 0 to 27 days was 6.6%; for infants aged 1 to 6 months, 9.0%; and for infants aged 7 to 11 months, 6.1%. The average decline in seasonal rates from winter to summer was 11.2% per season. A significant interaction between year of death and season indicated a diminishing rate of seasonal variation. The odds ratio for weekend vs week-day SIDS deaths was 0.98 (95% confidence interval, 0.96-1.01). There was no significant interaction between year of death and weekday of death, which indicates no change in the relationship since the implementation of the supine sleeping recommendations. Conclusions: These data provide insights into the effect of the supine sleep recommendations on SIDS. The reduction in seasonal variation of SIDS suggests advantages conferred by supine sleeping in colder seasons.

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