Alterations in children's sub-dominant gut microbiota by HIV infection and anti-retroviral therapy

Quynh Thi Nguyen, Azumi Ishizaki, Xiuqiong Bi, Kazunori Matsuda, Lam Van Nguyen, Hung Viet Pham, Chung Thi Thu Phan, Thuy Thi Bich Phung, Tuyen Thi Thu Ngo, An Van Nguyen, Dung Thi Khanh Khu, Hiroshi Ichimura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE: We investigated the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) on the gut microbiota of children.

DESIGN: This cross-sectional study investigated the gut microbiota of children with and without HIV.

METHODS: We collected fecal samples from 59 children with HIV (29 treated with ART [ART(+)] and 30 without ART [HIV(+)]) and 20 children without HIV [HIV(-)] in Vietnam. We performed quantitative RT-PCR to detect 14 representative intestinal bacteria targeting 16S/23S rRNA molecules. We also collected the blood samples for immunological analyses.

RESULTS: In spearman's correlation analyses, no significant correlation between the number of dominant bacteria and age was found among children in the HIV(-) group. However, the number of sub-dominant bacteria, including Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Enterobacteriaceae, positively correlated with age in the HIV(-) group, but not in the HIV(+) group. In the HIV(+) group, Clostridium coccoides group positively associated with the CD4+ cell count and its subsets. In the ART(+) group, Staphylococcus and C. perfringens positively correlated with CD4+ cells and their subsets and negatively with activated CD8+ cells. C. coccoides group and Bacteroides fragilis group were associated with regulatory T-cell counts. In multiple linear regression analyses, ART duration was independently associated with the number of C. perfringens, and Th17 cell count with the number of Staphylococcus in the ART(+) group.

CONCLUSIONS: HIV infection and ART may influence sub-dominant gut bacteria, directly or indirectly, in association with immune status in children with HIV.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e0258226
JournalPloS one
Issue number10
StatePublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Age Factors
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  • Bacteria/genetics
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome
  • HIV Infections/drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Principal Component Analysis
  • Staphylococcus/drug effects
  • Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/pharmacology


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