Alterations in the virulence potential of enteric pathogens and bacterial-host cell interactions under simulated microgravity conditions

V. Chopra, A. A. Fadl, Jian Sha, S. Chopra, C. L. Galindo, Ashok Chopra

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Abstract

Host immune mechanisms were proposed to decline under microgravity conditions during spaceflights, which might result in severe infections in astronauts. Therefore, it was important to investigate the effects of microgravity on infecting organisms and their interaction with host cells. Data showed that simulated microgravity (SMG) conditions markedly increased production of the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) heat-labile enterotoxin, which induced fluid secretory responses in a mouse model. SMG also enhanced production of tumor necrosis factor-α in murine macrophages infected with enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). In a similar fashion, simulated microgravity conditions augmented the invasive potential of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium and enhanced production of tumor necrosis-factor α in S. typhimurium -infected epithelial cells. Furthermore, coculturing of macrophages and S. typhimurium in a simulated microgravity environment resulted in activation of stress-associated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4. Using the antiorthostatic tail suspension mouse model, which simulates some aspects of microgravity, oral inoculation of S. typhimurium markedly reduced the 50% lethal dose compared to mice infected under normal gravitational conditions. Microarray analysis revealed simulated microgravity-induced alterations in the expression of 22 genes in S. typhimurium , and protein expression profiles were altered in both EPEC and S. typhimurium , based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. These studies indicated alterations in the virulence potential of bacteria and in host responses to these pathogens under simulated microgravity conditions, which may represent an important environmental signal. Such studies are essential for better understanding bacterial-host cell interactions, particularly in the context of spaceflights and space habitations of long duration. Copyright

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1345-1370
Number of pages26
JournalJournal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues
Volume69
Issue number14
DOIs
StatePublished - 2006

Fingerprint

Weightlessness
Microgravity
Pathogens
virulence
tumor
Cell Communication
Virulence
pathogen
protein
inoculation
electrokinesis
gel
Escherichia coli
bacterium
fluid
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli
gene
Space Flight
Macrophages
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Pollution

Cite this

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title = "Alterations in the virulence potential of enteric pathogens and bacterial-host cell interactions under simulated microgravity conditions",
abstract = "Host immune mechanisms were proposed to decline under microgravity conditions during spaceflights, which might result in severe infections in astronauts. Therefore, it was important to investigate the effects of microgravity on infecting organisms and their interaction with host cells. Data showed that simulated microgravity (SMG) conditions markedly increased production of the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) heat-labile enterotoxin, which induced fluid secretory responses in a mouse model. SMG also enhanced production of tumor necrosis factor-α in murine macrophages infected with enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). In a similar fashion, simulated microgravity conditions augmented the invasive potential of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium and enhanced production of tumor necrosis-factor α in S. typhimurium -infected epithelial cells. Furthermore, coculturing of macrophages and S. typhimurium in a simulated microgravity environment resulted in activation of stress-associated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4. Using the antiorthostatic tail suspension mouse model, which simulates some aspects of microgravity, oral inoculation of S. typhimurium markedly reduced the 50{\%} lethal dose compared to mice infected under normal gravitational conditions. Microarray analysis revealed simulated microgravity-induced alterations in the expression of 22 genes in S. typhimurium , and protein expression profiles were altered in both EPEC and S. typhimurium , based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. These studies indicated alterations in the virulence potential of bacteria and in host responses to these pathogens under simulated microgravity conditions, which may represent an important environmental signal. Such studies are essential for better understanding bacterial-host cell interactions, particularly in the context of spaceflights and space habitations of long duration. Copyright",
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T1 - Alterations in the virulence potential of enteric pathogens and bacterial-host cell interactions under simulated microgravity conditions

AU - Chopra, V.

AU - Fadl, A. A.

AU - Sha, Jian

AU - Chopra, S.

AU - Galindo, C. L.

AU - Chopra, Ashok

PY - 2006

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AB - Host immune mechanisms were proposed to decline under microgravity conditions during spaceflights, which might result in severe infections in astronauts. Therefore, it was important to investigate the effects of microgravity on infecting organisms and their interaction with host cells. Data showed that simulated microgravity (SMG) conditions markedly increased production of the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) heat-labile enterotoxin, which induced fluid secretory responses in a mouse model. SMG also enhanced production of tumor necrosis factor-α in murine macrophages infected with enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). In a similar fashion, simulated microgravity conditions augmented the invasive potential of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium and enhanced production of tumor necrosis-factor α in S. typhimurium -infected epithelial cells. Furthermore, coculturing of macrophages and S. typhimurium in a simulated microgravity environment resulted in activation of stress-associated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4. Using the antiorthostatic tail suspension mouse model, which simulates some aspects of microgravity, oral inoculation of S. typhimurium markedly reduced the 50% lethal dose compared to mice infected under normal gravitational conditions. Microarray analysis revealed simulated microgravity-induced alterations in the expression of 22 genes in S. typhimurium , and protein expression profiles were altered in both EPEC and S. typhimurium , based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. These studies indicated alterations in the virulence potential of bacteria and in host responses to these pathogens under simulated microgravity conditions, which may represent an important environmental signal. Such studies are essential for better understanding bacterial-host cell interactions, particularly in the context of spaceflights and space habitations of long duration. Copyright

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