An altered intestinal mucosal microbiome in HIV-1 infection is associated with mucosal and systemic immune activation and endotoxemia

S. M. Dillon, E. J. Lee, C. V. Kotter, G. L. Austin, Z. Dong, D. K. Hecht, S. Gianella, B. Siewe, D. M. Smith, A. L. Landay, C. E. Robertson, D. N. Frank, C. C. Wilson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

367 Scopus citations

Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection disrupts the intestinal immune system, leading to microbial translocation and systemic immune activation. We investigated the impact of HIV-1 infection on the intestinal microbiome and its association with mucosal T-cell and dendritic cell (DC) frequency and activation, as well as with levels of systemic T-cell activation, inflammation, and microbial translocation. Bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing was performed on colon biopsies and fecal samples from subjects with chronic, untreated HIV-1 infection and uninfected control subjects. Colon biopsies of HIV-1-infected subjects had increased abundances of Proteobacteria and decreased abundances of Firmicutes compared with uninfected donors. Furthermore at the genus level, a significant increase in Prevotella and decrease in Bacteroides was observed in HIV-1-infected subjects, indicating a disruption in the Bacteroidetes bacterial community structure. This HIV-1-associated increase in Prevotella abundance was associated with increased numbers of activated colonic T cells and myeloid DCs. Principal coordinates analysis demonstrated an HIV-1-related change in the microbiome that was associated with increased mucosal cellular immune activation, microbial translocation, and blood T-cell activation. These observations suggest that an important relationship exists between altered mucosal bacterial communities and intestinal inflammation during chronic HIV-1 infection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)983-994
Number of pages12
JournalMucosal Immunology
Volume7
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2014
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

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