Antibiotic-loaded bone cements, including poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and calcium sulfate (CaSO, are often used for treatment of orthopaedic infections involving Staphylococcus spp., although the effectiveness of this treatment modality may be limited due to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance and/or the development of biofilms within surgical sites. Gallium(III) is an iron analog capable of inhibiting essential iron-dependent pathways, exerting broad antimicrobial activity against multiple microorganisms, including Staphylococcus spp. Herein, we evaluated PMMA and CaSOas carriers for delivery of gallium(III) nitrate (Ga(NO to infected surgical sites by assessing the release kinetics subsequent to incorporation and antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. PMMA and to a lesser extent CaSOwere observed to be compatible as carriers for Ga(NO eluting concentrations with antimicrobial activity against planktonic bacteria, inhibiting bacterial growth, and preventing bacterial colonization of beads, and effective against established bacterial biofilms of S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Collectively, our in vitro results indicate that PMMA is a more suitable carrier compared to CaSOfor delivery of Ga(NO moreover they provide evidence for the potential use of Ga(NOwith PMMA as a strategy for the prevention and/or treatment for orthopaedic infections.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)