Background & Aims Prograstrin induces proliferation in colon crypts by activating p65nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) (p65) and β-catenin. We investigated whether Annexin A2 (AnxA2), a progastrin receptor, activates NF-κB and β-catenin in vivo. Methods ANXA2-null (ANXA2-/-) and wild-type (ANXA2+/+) mice were studied, along with clones of progastrin-responsive HEK-293 cells that stably expressed full-length progastrin (HEK-mGAS) or an empty vector (HEK-C). Small interfering RNA was used to down-regulate AnxA2, p65NF-κB, and β-catenin in cells. Results Proliferation and activation of p65 and β-catenin increased significantly in HEK-mGAS compared with HEK-C clones. HEK-mGAS cells had a 2- to 4-fold increase in relative levels of c-Myc, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, CyclinD1, double cortin CAM kinase-like 1 (DCAMKL+1), and CD44, compared with HEK-C clones. Down-regulation of AnxA2 in HEK-mGAS clones reduced activation of NF-κB and β-catenin, as well as levels of DCAMKL+1. Surprisingly, down-regulation of β-catenin had no effect on activation of p65NF-κB, whereas down-regulation of p65 significantly reduced activation of β-catenin in HEK-mGAS clones. Loss of either p65 or β-catenin significantly reduced proliferation of HEK-mGAS clones, indicating that both factors are required for the proliferative effects of progastrin. Lengths of colon crypts and levels of p65, β-catenin, DCAMKL+1, and CD44 were significantly higher in ANXA2 +/+ mice compared with either ANXA2-/- mice given progastrin or ANXA2+/+ and ANXA2-/- mice given saline. Conclusions AnxA2 expression is required for the biologic effects of progastrin in vivo and in vitro and mediates the stimulatory effect of progastrin on p65NF-κ, β-catenin, and the putative stem cell markers DCAMKL+1 and CD44. AnxA2 might therefore mediate the hyperproliferative and cocarcinogenic effects of progastrin.
- Colorectal Cancer
ASJC Scopus subject areas