Anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective effects of atorvastatin in a cartilage explant model of osteoarthritis

Nitya N. Pathak, Madhu C. Lingaraju, Venkanna Balaganur, Vinay Kant, Amar S. More, Dhirendra Kumar, Dinesh Kumar, Surendra K. Tandan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Objective: This study aimed to assess the chondroprotective potential of atorvastatin in rat’s cartilage explant culture model of osteoarthritis, stimulated by interleukin-1β (IL-1β).Materials and methods: The cartilage explants were treated with 20 ng/ml IL-1β alone or with 20 ng/ml IL-1β + various concentration of atorvastatin (1, 3, or 10 µM dissolved in DMSO) and incubated at 37 °C for 24 h. Also, control (0.25 % DMSO), stimulated (20 ng IL-1β) and treatment (atorvastatin 10 µM) cartilage explants were incubated without and with 1400W (10 µM). After 24 h of incubation, TNF-α, PGE2, MMP-13, TIMP-1, NO, and superoxide anion formation (O2) concomitant with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were estimated in the medium.Results: Atorvastatin inhibited IL-1β-induced GAGs release, TNF-α, MMP-13, and O2 with no effect on TIMP-1 and NO. In addition, the source of NO in normal and atorvastatin-treated cartilage was eNOS, while for IL-1β-stimulated cartilage it was iNOS. The cartilage degradation was associated with the combined effects of increased NO and O2 rather than only NO.Conclusion: The present study suggests that atorvastatin has the ability to protect cartilage degradation following IL-1β-stimulated cartilage in in vitro OA model and supports additional therapeutic application of atorvastatin in OA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)161-169
Number of pages9
JournalInflammation Research
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - Mar 13 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • 1400W
  • Atorvastatin
  • Cartilage explants
  • MMP-13/TIMP-1
  • Proinflammatory cytokines
  • Reactive oxygen species

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology


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