Anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of inosine

Csaba Szabó, Domokos Gerô, György Haskó

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

    1 Scopus citations

    Abstract

    Inosine can be formed intracellularly as well as extracellularly. The two major routes for the intracellular formation of inosine are the deamination of adenosine to inosine by intracellular adenosine deaminase and the dephosphorylation of inosine monophosphate to inosine by 5′-nucleotidase (Figure 15.1). This deamination of adenosine to inosine occurs mainly at high intracellular adenosine concentrations associated with hypoxia, ischemia, and other forms of cellular stress. 1 Once inosine reaches high concentrations inside the cell, it is shunted into the extracellular space via the operation of bidirectional equilibrative nucleoside transporters (Figure 15.1). 2 Consistent with the fact that inosine exerts its most powerful regulatory actions in the immune system (see the following text), adenosine deaminase expression is highest in lymphoid tissues. 3 The extracellular formation of inosine is the result of conversion of adenosine to inosine by extracellular (plasma or cell surface) adenosine deaminase. Similar to inosine, adenosine is liberated from cells during metabolic stress.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Title of host publicationAdenosine Receptors
    Subtitle of host publicationTherapeutic Aspects for Inflammatory and Immune Diseases
    PublisherCRC Press
    Pages237-256
    Number of pages20
    ISBN (Electronic)9781420005776
    ISBN (Print)0849339995, 9780849339998
    StatePublished - Jan 1 2006

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Medicine(all)
    • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)
    • Immunology and Microbiology(all)

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  • Cite this

    Szabó, C., Gerô, D., & Haskó, G. (2006). Anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of inosine. In Adenosine Receptors: Therapeutic Aspects for Inflammatory and Immune Diseases (pp. 237-256). CRC Press.