Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) caused by infection of the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, (Ov) is the major public health problem in northeast Thailand. Following Ov infection the subsequent molecular changes can be associated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced chronic inflammation, advanced periductal fibrosis, and cholangiocarcino- genesis. Notably, resistance to an activation of cell death in prolonged oxidative stress conditions can occur but some damaged/mutated cells could survive and enable clonal expansion. Our study used a natural product, xanthohumol (XN), which is an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory compound, to examine whether it could prevent Ov-associated CCA carcinogenesis. We measured the effect of XN with or without praziquantel (PZ), an anti-helminthic treatment, on DNA damage, redox status change including iron accumulation and periductal fibrosis during CCA genesis induced by administration of Ov and N-dinitrosomethylamine (NDMA) in hamsters. Animals were randomly divided into four groups: group I, Ov infection and NDMA administration (ON); group II, Ov infection and NDMA administration and PZ treatment (ONP); the latter 2 groups were similar to group I and II, but group III received additional XN (XON) and group IV received XN plus PZ (XONP). The results showed that high 8-oxodG (a marker ofDNAdamage) was observed throughout cholangiocarcinogenesis. Moreover, increased expression of CD44v8-10 (a cell surface in regulation of the ROS defense system), whereas decreased expression of phospho- p38MAPK (a major ROS target), was found during the progression of the bile duct cell transformation. In addition, high accumulation of iron and expression of transferrin receptor-1 (TfR-1) in both malignant bile ducts and inflammatory cells were detected. Furthermore, fibrosis also increased with the highest level being on day 180. On the other hand, the groups of XN with or without PZ supplementations showed an effective reduction in all the markers examined, including fibrosis when compared with the ON group. In particular, the XONP group, in which a significant reduction DNA damage occurred, was also found to have iron accumulation and fibrosis compared to the other groups. Our results show that XN administered in combination with PZ could efficiently prevent CCA development and hence provide potential chemopreventive benefits in Ov-induced cholangiocarcinogenesis.
- DNA damage
- Oxidative stress
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)