AP endonuclease-independent DNA base excision repair in human cells

Lee Wiederhold, John B. Leppard, Padmini Kedar, Feridoun Karimi-Busheri, Aghdass Rasouli-Nia, Michael Weinfeld, Alan E. Tomkinson, Tadahide Izumi, Rajendra Prasad, Samuel H. Wilson, Sankar Mitra, Tapas Hazra

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330 Scopus citations


The paradigm for repair of oxidized base lesions in genomes via the base excision repair (BER) pathway is based on studies in Escherichia coli, in which AP endonuclease (APE) removes all 3′ blocking groups (including 3′ phosphate) generated by DNA glycosylase/AP lyases after base excision. The recently discovered mammalian DNA glycosylase/AP lyases, NEIL1 and NEIL2, unlike the previously characterized OGG1 and NTH1, generate DNA strand breaks with 3′ phosphate termini. Here we show that in mammalian cells, removal of the 3′ phosphate is dependent on polynucleotide kinase (PNK), and not APE. NEIL1 stably interacts with other BER proteins, DNA polymerase β (pol β) and DNA ligase IIIα. The complex of NEIL1, pol β, and DNA ligase IIIα together with PNK suggests coordination of NEIL1-initiated repair. That NEIL1/PNK could also repair the products of other DNA glycosylases suggests a broad role for this APE-independent BER pathway in mammals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)209-220
Number of pages12
JournalMolecular Cell
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jul 23 2004


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology

Cite this

Wiederhold, L., Leppard, J. B., Kedar, P., Karimi-Busheri, F., Rasouli-Nia, A., Weinfeld, M., Tomkinson, A. E., Izumi, T., Prasad, R., Wilson, S. H., Mitra, S., & Hazra, T. (2004). AP endonuclease-independent DNA base excision repair in human cells. Molecular Cell, 15(2), 209-220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2004.06.003