Association between Sleep Quality and Mental Health among Patients at a Post-COVID-19 Recovery Clinic

Sara Nowakowski, Manasa Kokonda, Rizwana Sultana, Brittany B. Duong, Sarah E. Nagy, Mohammed F. Zaidan, Mirza M. Baig, Bryan V. Grigg, Justin Seashore, Rachel R. Deer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


A growing body of research documents the persistence of physical and neuropsychiatric symptoms following the resolution of acute COVID-19 infection. To the best of our knowledge, no published study has examined the interaction between insomnia and mental health. Accordingly, we proposed to examine new diagnoses of insomnia, and referrals to pulmonary and sleep medicine clinics for treatment of sleep disorders, in patients presenting to one post-acute COVID-19 recovery clinic. Additionally, we aimed to examine the relationship between poor sleep quality, depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress. Patients presented to the clinic on average 2 months following COVID-19 infection; 51.9% (n = 41) were hospitalized, 11.4% (n = 9) were in the intensive care unit, 2.5% (n = 2) were on a mechanical ventilator, and 38.0% (n = 30) were discharged on oxygen. The most commonly reported symptom was fatigue (88%, n = 70), with worse sleep following a COVID-19 infection reported in 50.6% (n = 40). The mean PSQI score was 9.7 (82.3%, n = 65 with poor sleep quality). The mean GAD-7 score was 8.3 (22.8%, n = 14 with severe depression). The mean PHQ-9 was 10.1 (17.8%, n = 18 with severe anxiety). The mean IES-6 was 2.1 (54.4%, n = 43 with post-traumatic stress). Poor sleep quality was significantly associated with increased severity of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress. Future work should follow patients longitudinally to examine if sleep, fatigue, and mental health symptoms improve over time.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number586
JournalBrain Sciences
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2022


  • PASC
  • anxiety
  • depression
  • impact of events
  • long-COVID symp-toms
  • post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection
  • sleep quality
  • stress
  • trauma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience


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