Association of indicators of bacterial vaginosis with a female genital tract factor that induces expression of HIV-1

Gene G. Olinger, Farhad B. Hashemi, Beverly E. Sha, Gregory T. Spear

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of bacterial vaginosis and bacterial vaginosis-associated microorganisms with an HIV-inducing factor (HIF) found in cervicovaginal lavage. Design: A total of 26 cervicovaginal ravage specimens collected from 17 women were used in this study to determine if HIF was significantly associated with features consistent with bacterial vaginosis. Methods: Patients were evaluated for various clinical features including age, HIV status and stage, CD4 cell counts, clinical diagnosis of gynecological infections, vaginal pH, Gram stains of vaginal fluid, phase of menstruation, and presence of cervical dysplasia. Cervicovaginal lavage specimens were analyzed for the presence of HIF by U1 bioassay. The presence of Gardnerella vaginalis, and general Mycoplasmataceae, and specifically Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, M. fermentans, M. genitalium in cervicovaginal lavage were determined by semiquantitative PCR. Results: Eleven cervicovaginal lavage samples from seven women were HIF-positive and 15 cervicovaginal lavage samples from 11 women were HIF-negative (patient No. 8 had two HIF-negative cervicovaginal lavage and one HIF-positive cervicovaginal lavage). The following parameters were significantly associated with HIF: abnormal vaginal fluid pH (> 4.5) (P = 0.006), Gram stains indicative of bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.007), normal menstrual cycle (P = 0.0007) and PCR detection and relative quantity of M. hominis (P = 0.0003, P = 0.002). Conclusions: This study indicates that HIF is closely associated with features of bacterial vaginosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1905-1912
Number of pages8
Issue number14
StatePublished - 1999
Externally publishedYes


  • Bacterial vaginosis
  • Gardnerella vaginalis
  • Gram stain
  • HIV-1
  • Mycoplasma
  • Mycoplasma hominis
  • PCR

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Infectious Diseases


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