Associations Among Antiphospholipid Antibody Types, Isotypes, and Titers: An AntiPhospholipid Syndrome Alliance for Clinical Trials and InternatiOnal Networking (APS ACTION) Study

APS ACTION

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3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Several antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) profiles (“triple” and lupus anticoagulant [LA] positivity) are associated with a higher risk for clinical manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Further risk is correlated with higher levels of anticardiolipin antibody (aCL) and anti-β2 glycoprotein-I antibody (aβ2GPI), and with aPL persistence. Given that the 3 aPL tests detect partially overlapping sets of antibodies, the primary goal of this study was to characterize the associations among aPL tests using AntiPhospholipid Syndrome Alliance for Clinical Trials and InternatiOnal Networking (APS ACTION) core laboratory data. The APS ACTION Registry includes annually followed adult patients with positive aPL based on the Revised Sapporo Classification Criteria. We analyzed baseline and prospective core laboratory data of the registry for associations among aPL tests using the Spearman rank correlation with Bonferroni-adjusted significance level for multiple comparisons. An aPL Load was calculated based on 6 tests (aCL IgG/IgM/IgA and aβ2GPI IgG/IgM/IgA); a receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the aPL Load in predicting LA positivity. In 351 patients simultaneously tested for LA, aCL, and aβ2GPI, the frequency of moderate-to-high (≥40 U) titers of aCL and aβ2GPI IgG/IgM/IgA was higher in patients who were positive for LA vs those who were negative. An aPL Load was calculated for each patient to assess the overall aPL burden. For every 1-point increase in the aPL Load, the possibility of a positive LA test increased by 32% (odds ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.2-1.5; P <.001). Based on core laboratory data from a large international registry, most aPL enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ≥40 U and a high calculated aPL Load combining 6 aPL enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were predictive of a positive LA. These data suggest that the combined quantitative burden of aPL may provide a mechanistic explanation of a positive LA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100147
JournalLaboratory Investigation
Volume103
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2023

Keywords

  • anticardiolipin
  • antiphospholipid antibodies
  • antiphospholipid syndrome
  • lupus anticoagulant

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine

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