Recent studies suggest that some monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for ebolavirus glycoprotein (GP) can protect experimental animals against infections. Most mAbs isolated from ebolavirus survivors appeared to target the glycan cap or the stalk region of the viral GP, which is the envelope protein and the only antigen inducing virus-neutralizing antibody response. Some of the mAbs were demonstrated to be protective in vivo. Here, a panel of mAbs from four individual survivors of ebolavirus infection that target the glycan cap or stem region were selected for investigation of the mechanisms of their antiviral effect. Comparative characterization of the inhibiting effects on multiple steps of viral replication was performed, including attachment, post-attachment, entry, binding at low pH, post-cleavage neutralization of virions, viral trafficking to endosomes, cell-to-cell transmission, viral egress, and inhibition when added early at various time points post-infection. In addition, Fc-domain related properties were characterized, including activation and degranulation of NK cells, antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis and glycan content. The two groups of mAbs (glycan cap versus stem) demonstrated very different profiles of activities suggesting usage of mAbs with different epitope specificity could coordinate inhibition of multiple steps of filovirus infection through Fab- and Fc-mediated mechanisms, and provide a reliable therapeutic approach.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology