Introduction: Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) with anaplastic features (PAAF) is a rare entity associated with decreased survival. It is characterized by hypercellularity, atypia, brisk mitotic activity, variable necrosis, and association with a classic PA component or anaplastic transformation in a recurrent tumor with a previously-documented classic PA. Materials and methods: We present 5 PAAF cases with clinical, radiological, pathological, and molecular correlation. We interrogated ATRX, IDH, TP53, PTEN, EGFR, BRAF, 6q23, p16(Ink4a) by sequencing, FISH, and immunohistochemistry. Results: Four tumors were located in the cerebellum, and 1 was supratentorial. All showed ATRX protein loss by immunohistochemistry, loss of heterozygosity for PTEN, and had no IDH/TP53/BRAF mutations, nor EGFR amplification. Two of 5 tumors showed BRAF duplication by pyrosequencing. All showed loss of PTEN nuclear expression in subsets of tumor cells, which was associated with variable cytoplasmic positivity for pS6. There was a relative correlation between loss of PTEN expression and pS6 cytoplasmic expression. p53 was expressed in ~ 50% of tumor cells in all tumors. P16 was variably lost in all cases. One tumor showed MYB/6q23 deletion. Conclusion: We confirm ATRX protein loss suggestive of ATRX alteration as well as dysregulation of the PI3K/AKT pathway and, less often, of the MAPK/ERK pathway in PAAF.
- Pilocytic astrocytoma
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