Purpose: Guidelines for atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) diagnosed on prostate biopsy recommend repeat biopsy within 3–6 months after diagnosis. We sought to discern the rate of detecting clinically significant prostate cancer on repeat biopsy and predictors associated with progression. Materials and methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent prostate biopsy at our institution from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2015. Gleason grade group (GGG) system and D’Amico stratification were used to report pathology and risk stratification, respectively. Logistic and linear regression analyses were performed. Results: A total of 593 patients underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy, of which 27 (4.6%) had the diagnosis of ASAP. Of these, 11 (41%) had a repeat biopsy. Median time from diagnosis to repeat biopsy was 147 days (IQR 83.5–247.0). Distribution across the GGG system on repeat biopsy was as follows: 7 (63.6%) benign, 3 (27.3%) GG1, and 1 (9.1%) GG2. ASAP was not associated with subsequent diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.064–3.247, P = 0.432). There was no association between ASAP and high cancer risk (ASAP: β = − 0.12; P = 0.204). Conclusions: Patients diagnosed with ASAP managed according to guideline recommendations are more likely diagnosed with benign pathology and indolent prostate cancer on repeat biopsy. These findings support prior studies suggesting refinement of guidelines in regard to the appropriateness and timeliness of repeat biopsy among patients diagnosed with ASAP.
- Atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP)
- Prostate biopsy
- Prostate cancer
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