Bifunctional nanoarrays for probing the immune response at the single-molecule level

Haogang Cai, David Depoil, Matteo Palma, Michael P. Sheetz, Michael L. Dustin, Shalom J. Wind

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Bifunctional nanoarrays were created to simulate the immunological synapse and probe the T-cell immune response at the single-molecule level. Sub-5 nm AuPd nanodot arrays were fabricated using both e-beam and nanoimprint lithography. The nanoarrays were then functionalized by two costimulatory molecules: antibody UCHT1 Fab, which binds to the T-cell receptor (TCR) and activates the immune response, bound to metallic nanodots; and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, which enhances cell adhesion, on the surrounding area. Initial T-cell experiments show successful attachment and activation on the bifunctional nanoarrays. This nanoscale platform for single-molecule control of TCR in living T-cells provides a new approach to explore how its geometric arrangement affects T-cell activation and behavior, with potential applications in immunotherapy. This platform also serves as a general model for single-molecule nanoarrays where more than one molecular species is required.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6F902
JournalJournal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2013
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Bifunctional nanoarrays for probing the immune response at the single-molecule level'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this