To date, the best validated, and best performing biomarkers for clinical asthma appear to be measures of inflammation in induced sputum, and measures of ENO. Some trials using ENO appear particularly promising for early clinical use. EBC metrics are at present too inchoate for clinical purposes. However, not all important clinical and research questions can be addressed with sputum, EBC, or ENO metrics, leaving an important place for BAL, bronchial biopsy, and perhaps EBC measurements in the research arena.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine