Blood transfusion in surgery has long been understood to carry a fair amount of clinical risk despite its obvious benefits. For this reason, blood loss conservation and other methods for minimization of transfusion have become of paramount importance for the advancement of ongoing safe care of the surgical patient. This chapter will serve as an overall guide to understanding the availability, cost, and usage of blood products in surgery. Additionally, we will discuss techniques used during procedures that play a role in minimization of transfusion. Further, the potential benefits of unnecessary blood transfusion in surgical patients will be explained with a goal of improving outcomes in the future.
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