Bovine vaccinia outbreaks: Detection and isolation of vaccinia virus in milk samples

Jônatas S. Abrahão, Tércia M.L. Oliveira, Rafael K. Campos, Marieta C. Madureira, Erna G. Kroon, Zélia I.P. Lobato

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


The vaccinia virus (VACV), which causes exanthemous lesions in dairy cattle and humans, has been associated with several bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil. Currently, no data are available about the safety of milk produced in VACV-affected areas. In this study, 47 milk samples were collected during bovine vaccinia outbreaks and submitted to viral isolation, DNA detection, and nucleotide sequencing of the conserved tk gene. The appearance of characteristic white pocks on the chorioallantoic membranes of chicken eggs, in association with viral cytopathic effects in chicken embryo fibroblasts and phylogenetic data, strongly suggest milk contamination by VACV. This is the first report of VACV detection in and isolation from milk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1141-1146
Number of pages6
JournalFoodborne Pathogens and Disease
Issue number9
StatePublished - Nov 1 2009
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Microbiology


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