Bupropion therapy during pregnancy: The drug and its major metabolites in umbilical cord plasma and amniotic fluid

Valentina Fokina, Holly West, Cheryl Oncken, Shannon Clark, Mahmoud Ahmed, Gary Hankins, Tatiana Nanovskaya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Bupropion is used for treatment of depression during pregnancy. However, its use as a smoking cessation aid for pregnant women is currently under evaluation. Objective: The aim of this opportunistic study was to investigate the transfer of bupropion and its major pharmacologically active metabolites, hydroxybupropion and threohydrobupropion, across the placenta in vivo. In addition, the concentrations of the drug and its metabolites were determined in the amniotic fluid. Study Design: The following samples were collected at deliveries from 22 women taking bupropion: maternal blood (n = 22), umbilical cord venous blood (n = 22), and amniotic fluid (n = 9). The concentrations of the drug and its metabolites in blood plasma and amniotic fluid were determined by means of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Placental passage was calculated as a ratio of umbilical cord venous plasma to maternal plasma concentrations. Results: The levels of hydroxybupropion and threohydrobupropion in umbilical cord venous plasma were invariably lower than their corresponding concentrations in maternal plasma. The concentrations of bupropion in umbilical cord plasma were lower than in maternal plasma in the majority of the maternal-cord blood pairs. The median values of the umbilical cord venous plasma to maternal plasma ratios were: bupropion, 0.53 (interquartile range 0.35, n = 18), hydroxybupropion, 0.21 (interquartile range 0.12, n = 18), and threohydrobupropion, 0.61 (interquartile range 0.11, n = 21). In umbilical cord venous plasma, the median concentration of bupropion was 5.3 ng/mL; hydroxybupropion, 103.6 ng/mL; and threohydrobupropion, 59.6 ng/mL. Bupropion and its metabolites were detectable in the amniotic fluid but the concentrations of threohydrobupropion were higher than those in the corresponding umbilical cord venous plasma. Conclusion: Bupropion and its active metabolites cross the placenta to the fetal circulation. The concentrations of hydroxybupropion and threohydrobupropion in umbilical cord venous plasma were higher than bupropion concentrations suggesting a higher fetal exposure to the metabolites than the parent drug. The higher levels of threohydrobupropion in the amniotic fluid than those in umbilical cord venous plasma suggest that enzymes involved in the metabolism of bupropion to threohydrobupropion are most likely active in the fetus. The biological consequences of fetal exposure to maternally administered bupropion and/or its active metabolites via placental transfer and recirculation of the amniotic fluid are yet to be determined.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Feb 20 2016

Fingerprint

Bupropion
Umbilical Cord
Amniotic Fluid
Pregnancy
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Mothers
Therapeutics
Fetal Blood
Placenta
hydrobupropion
Smoking Cessation
Liquid Chromatography
Pregnant Women

Keywords

  • Amniotic fluid
  • Bupropion
  • Hydroxybupropion
  • Placental passage
  • Pregnancy
  • Threohydrobupropion
  • Umbilical cord plasma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

Cite this

@article{5febb683007d4153995c5b36baebbd36,
title = "Bupropion therapy during pregnancy: The drug and its major metabolites in umbilical cord plasma and amniotic fluid",
abstract = "Background: Bupropion is used for treatment of depression during pregnancy. However, its use as a smoking cessation aid for pregnant women is currently under evaluation. Objective: The aim of this opportunistic study was to investigate the transfer of bupropion and its major pharmacologically active metabolites, hydroxybupropion and threohydrobupropion, across the placenta in vivo. In addition, the concentrations of the drug and its metabolites were determined in the amniotic fluid. Study Design: The following samples were collected at deliveries from 22 women taking bupropion: maternal blood (n = 22), umbilical cord venous blood (n = 22), and amniotic fluid (n = 9). The concentrations of the drug and its metabolites in blood plasma and amniotic fluid were determined by means of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Placental passage was calculated as a ratio of umbilical cord venous plasma to maternal plasma concentrations. Results: The levels of hydroxybupropion and threohydrobupropion in umbilical cord venous plasma were invariably lower than their corresponding concentrations in maternal plasma. The concentrations of bupropion in umbilical cord plasma were lower than in maternal plasma in the majority of the maternal-cord blood pairs. The median values of the umbilical cord venous plasma to maternal plasma ratios were: bupropion, 0.53 (interquartile range 0.35, n = 18), hydroxybupropion, 0.21 (interquartile range 0.12, n = 18), and threohydrobupropion, 0.61 (interquartile range 0.11, n = 21). In umbilical cord venous plasma, the median concentration of bupropion was 5.3 ng/mL; hydroxybupropion, 103.6 ng/mL; and threohydrobupropion, 59.6 ng/mL. Bupropion and its metabolites were detectable in the amniotic fluid but the concentrations of threohydrobupropion were higher than those in the corresponding umbilical cord venous plasma. Conclusion: Bupropion and its active metabolites cross the placenta to the fetal circulation. The concentrations of hydroxybupropion and threohydrobupropion in umbilical cord venous plasma were higher than bupropion concentrations suggesting a higher fetal exposure to the metabolites than the parent drug. The higher levels of threohydrobupropion in the amniotic fluid than those in umbilical cord venous plasma suggest that enzymes involved in the metabolism of bupropion to threohydrobupropion are most likely active in the fetus. The biological consequences of fetal exposure to maternally administered bupropion and/or its active metabolites via placental transfer and recirculation of the amniotic fluid are yet to be determined.",
keywords = "Amniotic fluid, Bupropion, Hydroxybupropion, Placental passage, Pregnancy, Threohydrobupropion, Umbilical cord plasma",
author = "Valentina Fokina and Holly West and Cheryl Oncken and Shannon Clark and Mahmoud Ahmed and Gary Hankins and Tatiana Nanovskaya",
year = "2016",
month = "2",
day = "20",
doi = "10.1016/j.ajog.2016.05.016",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology",
issn = "0002-9378",
publisher = "Mosby Inc.",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Bupropion therapy during pregnancy

T2 - The drug and its major metabolites in umbilical cord plasma and amniotic fluid

AU - Fokina, Valentina

AU - West, Holly

AU - Oncken, Cheryl

AU - Clark, Shannon

AU - Ahmed, Mahmoud

AU - Hankins, Gary

AU - Nanovskaya, Tatiana

PY - 2016/2/20

Y1 - 2016/2/20

N2 - Background: Bupropion is used for treatment of depression during pregnancy. However, its use as a smoking cessation aid for pregnant women is currently under evaluation. Objective: The aim of this opportunistic study was to investigate the transfer of bupropion and its major pharmacologically active metabolites, hydroxybupropion and threohydrobupropion, across the placenta in vivo. In addition, the concentrations of the drug and its metabolites were determined in the amniotic fluid. Study Design: The following samples were collected at deliveries from 22 women taking bupropion: maternal blood (n = 22), umbilical cord venous blood (n = 22), and amniotic fluid (n = 9). The concentrations of the drug and its metabolites in blood plasma and amniotic fluid were determined by means of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Placental passage was calculated as a ratio of umbilical cord venous plasma to maternal plasma concentrations. Results: The levels of hydroxybupropion and threohydrobupropion in umbilical cord venous plasma were invariably lower than their corresponding concentrations in maternal plasma. The concentrations of bupropion in umbilical cord plasma were lower than in maternal plasma in the majority of the maternal-cord blood pairs. The median values of the umbilical cord venous plasma to maternal plasma ratios were: bupropion, 0.53 (interquartile range 0.35, n = 18), hydroxybupropion, 0.21 (interquartile range 0.12, n = 18), and threohydrobupropion, 0.61 (interquartile range 0.11, n = 21). In umbilical cord venous plasma, the median concentration of bupropion was 5.3 ng/mL; hydroxybupropion, 103.6 ng/mL; and threohydrobupropion, 59.6 ng/mL. Bupropion and its metabolites were detectable in the amniotic fluid but the concentrations of threohydrobupropion were higher than those in the corresponding umbilical cord venous plasma. Conclusion: Bupropion and its active metabolites cross the placenta to the fetal circulation. The concentrations of hydroxybupropion and threohydrobupropion in umbilical cord venous plasma were higher than bupropion concentrations suggesting a higher fetal exposure to the metabolites than the parent drug. The higher levels of threohydrobupropion in the amniotic fluid than those in umbilical cord venous plasma suggest that enzymes involved in the metabolism of bupropion to threohydrobupropion are most likely active in the fetus. The biological consequences of fetal exposure to maternally administered bupropion and/or its active metabolites via placental transfer and recirculation of the amniotic fluid are yet to be determined.

AB - Background: Bupropion is used for treatment of depression during pregnancy. However, its use as a smoking cessation aid for pregnant women is currently under evaluation. Objective: The aim of this opportunistic study was to investigate the transfer of bupropion and its major pharmacologically active metabolites, hydroxybupropion and threohydrobupropion, across the placenta in vivo. In addition, the concentrations of the drug and its metabolites were determined in the amniotic fluid. Study Design: The following samples were collected at deliveries from 22 women taking bupropion: maternal blood (n = 22), umbilical cord venous blood (n = 22), and amniotic fluid (n = 9). The concentrations of the drug and its metabolites in blood plasma and amniotic fluid were determined by means of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Placental passage was calculated as a ratio of umbilical cord venous plasma to maternal plasma concentrations. Results: The levels of hydroxybupropion and threohydrobupropion in umbilical cord venous plasma were invariably lower than their corresponding concentrations in maternal plasma. The concentrations of bupropion in umbilical cord plasma were lower than in maternal plasma in the majority of the maternal-cord blood pairs. The median values of the umbilical cord venous plasma to maternal plasma ratios were: bupropion, 0.53 (interquartile range 0.35, n = 18), hydroxybupropion, 0.21 (interquartile range 0.12, n = 18), and threohydrobupropion, 0.61 (interquartile range 0.11, n = 21). In umbilical cord venous plasma, the median concentration of bupropion was 5.3 ng/mL; hydroxybupropion, 103.6 ng/mL; and threohydrobupropion, 59.6 ng/mL. Bupropion and its metabolites were detectable in the amniotic fluid but the concentrations of threohydrobupropion were higher than those in the corresponding umbilical cord venous plasma. Conclusion: Bupropion and its active metabolites cross the placenta to the fetal circulation. The concentrations of hydroxybupropion and threohydrobupropion in umbilical cord venous plasma were higher than bupropion concentrations suggesting a higher fetal exposure to the metabolites than the parent drug. The higher levels of threohydrobupropion in the amniotic fluid than those in umbilical cord venous plasma suggest that enzymes involved in the metabolism of bupropion to threohydrobupropion are most likely active in the fetus. The biological consequences of fetal exposure to maternally administered bupropion and/or its active metabolites via placental transfer and recirculation of the amniotic fluid are yet to be determined.

KW - Amniotic fluid

KW - Bupropion

KW - Hydroxybupropion

KW - Placental passage

KW - Pregnancy

KW - Threohydrobupropion

KW - Umbilical cord plasma

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DO - 10.1016/j.ajog.2016.05.016

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JO - American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

JF - American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

SN - 0002-9378

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