Cadmium (Cd), released from cigarette smoke and metal industrial activities, is known to accumulate in human body organs including retina and is particularly higher in retinal tissues of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) eyes compared to non-AMD eyes. We have determined the cytotoxic effects of Cd on human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Upon Cd treatment, there was a dose- and time-dependent decline in ARPE-19 cell viability as well as early apoptotic changes such as altered mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and Cytochrome C release in cytosol. Depletion of GSH by buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine (BSO) resulted in increased Cd toxicity in ARPE-19 cells. Cadmium also caused reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway including c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2), and p38 in ARPE-19 cells. Antioxidants such as N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly reduced Cd-induced toxicity. These results indicate that elevated ROS-induced activation of the MAPK signaling pathway could be associated with Cd-induced RPE cell apoptosis, one of the major contributing factors in AMD. The toxic effects of Cd on ARPE-19 cells indicate that environmental heavy metals such as Cd could be important potential factors in RPE cells death associated retinal diseases particularly related to smoking.
- oxidative stress
- retinal pigment epithelium
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Sensory Systems
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience