Caffeine intake is not associated with serum testosterone levels in adult men: cross-sectional findings from the NHANES 1999–2004 and 2011–2012

David Lopez, Shailesh Advani, Xueting Qiu, Konstantinos K. Tsilidis, Mohit Khera, Jeri Kim, Steven Canfield

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Objective: The association of caffeine intake with testosterone remains unclear. We evaluated the association of caffeine intake with serum testosterone among American men and determined whether this association varied by race/ethnicity and measurements of adiposity. Methods: Data were analyzed for 2581 men (≥20 years old) who participated in the cycles of the NHANES 1999–2004 and 2011–2012, a cross-sectional study. Testosterone (ng/mL) was measured by immunoassay among men who participated in the morning examination session. We analyzed 24-h dietary recall data to estimate caffeine intake (mg/day). Multivariable weighted linear regression models were conducted. Results: We identified no linear relationship between caffeine intake and testosterone levels in the total population, but there was a non-linear association (p nonlinearity <.01). Similarly, stratified analysis showed nonlinear associations among Mexican-American and Non-Hispanic White men (p nonlinearity ≤.03 both) and only among men with waist circumference <102 cm and body mass index <25 kg/m 2 (p nonlinearity <.01, both). Conclusion: No linear association was identified between levels of caffeine intake and testosterone in US men, but we observed a non-linear association, including among racial/ethnic groups and measurements of adiposity in this cross-sectional study. These associations are warranted to be investigated in larger prospective studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)45-54
Number of pages10
JournalAging Male
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2 2019
Externally publishedYes



  • Caffeine intake
  • obesity
  • race/ethnicity
  • testosterone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology

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