Can early therapy reduce inflammation?

Netanya G. Sandler, Irini Sereti

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Serious non-AIDS events or noninfectious complications of HIV infection far outnumber AIDS events in the current combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) era and are attributed to chronic inflammation. Thus, a better understanding of why inflammation persists on ART will assist in developing better therapeutic strategies, including optimal timing of ART initiation. RECENT FINDINGS: Markers of inflammation and coagulation, such as D-dimer, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, soluble CD14, and soluble CD163, predict end-organ disease and mortality, whereas markers of T-cell activation appear more predictive of CD4 T-cell decline, AIDS events, or response to therapy. Initiating ART at high CD4 T-cell counts can result in less inflammation as supported by studies in acute and early HIV infection, but antiretroviral drugs may differentially affect inflammatory pathways. Decreasing inflammation in HIV-uninfected individuals may decrease morbidity, but long-term outcomes studies in HIV-infected individuals are lacking. SUMMARY: Circulating biomarkers of inflammation are among the strongest predictors of non-AIDS outcomes in treated HIV infection. With additional investigation, they may serve in the future as specific end-organ disease surrogate endpoints and may help identify those patients at highest risk of non-AIDS events who may benefit from either early ART and/or potential adjuvant anti-inflammatory therapies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)72-79
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • HIV
  • T-cell activation
  • biomarkers
  • inflammation
  • monocyte activation
  • morbidity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Hematology
  • Oncology
  • Oncology(nursing)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology


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