Can we distinguish anxiety from depression?

David S. Baldwin, Dwight L. Evans, Robert M A Hirschfeld, Siegfried Kasper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

37 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

It is becoming increasingly apparent that although anxiety and depression are separate syndromes and can be identified as such, there is considerable overlap of clinical symptoms and pathophysiological processes. Data indicate that comorbid anxiety and depression is more common than either disorder alone. A large US study found that 58% of individuals with a history of depression also had an anxiety disorder, and a study by the World Health Organization showed that anxiety and depression were the most common coexisting psychological problems in primary care. Generalized anxiety disorder in particular is strongly comorbid with, and commonly precedes, major depression. The implications of comorbid anxiety and depression are significant, with increased social and psychological impairment, and poorer clinical outcomes and prognosis. Anxiety and depression coexist at much higher rates than would be expected by chance alone, suggesting that the two disorders are closely related and may have a common cause. Disturbances of serotonin and norepinephrine neurotransmission are both implicated in anxiety and depression, and new evidence suggests that these systems may provide a mechanistic link between the two disorders, with changes in one system being reflected in the other. Abnormal homeostasis of these two systems may result in anxiety and depression. New theories hypothesize a continuum of illness, with anxiety and depression possibly being different phenotypic expressions of a common neurobiological origin. There is still uncertainty regarding the neurobiological cause, but it is probably linked to dysregulation in the serotonergic and noradrenergic systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)158-165
Number of pages8
JournalPsychopharmacology Bulletin
Volume36 Suppl 2
StatePublished - Jun 2002

Fingerprint

Anxiety
Depression
Anxiety Disorders
Psychology
Synaptic Transmission
Uncertainty
Primary Health Care
Serotonin
Norepinephrine
Homeostasis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Baldwin, D. S., Evans, D. L., Hirschfeld, R. M. A., & Kasper, S. (2002). Can we distinguish anxiety from depression? Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 36 Suppl 2, 158-165.

Can we distinguish anxiety from depression? / Baldwin, David S.; Evans, Dwight L.; Hirschfeld, Robert M A; Kasper, Siegfried.

In: Psychopharmacology Bulletin, Vol. 36 Suppl 2, 06.2002, p. 158-165.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Baldwin, DS, Evans, DL, Hirschfeld, RMA & Kasper, S 2002, 'Can we distinguish anxiety from depression?', Psychopharmacology Bulletin, vol. 36 Suppl 2, pp. 158-165.
Baldwin DS, Evans DL, Hirschfeld RMA, Kasper S. Can we distinguish anxiety from depression? Psychopharmacology Bulletin. 2002 Jun;36 Suppl 2:158-165.
Baldwin, David S. ; Evans, Dwight L. ; Hirschfeld, Robert M A ; Kasper, Siegfried. / Can we distinguish anxiety from depression?. In: Psychopharmacology Bulletin. 2002 ; Vol. 36 Suppl 2. pp. 158-165.
@article{56cb76e0152e4bccada1c6508f50e866,
title = "Can we distinguish anxiety from depression?",
abstract = "It is becoming increasingly apparent that although anxiety and depression are separate syndromes and can be identified as such, there is considerable overlap of clinical symptoms and pathophysiological processes. Data indicate that comorbid anxiety and depression is more common than either disorder alone. A large US study found that 58{\%} of individuals with a history of depression also had an anxiety disorder, and a study by the World Health Organization showed that anxiety and depression were the most common coexisting psychological problems in primary care. Generalized anxiety disorder in particular is strongly comorbid with, and commonly precedes, major depression. The implications of comorbid anxiety and depression are significant, with increased social and psychological impairment, and poorer clinical outcomes and prognosis. Anxiety and depression coexist at much higher rates than would be expected by chance alone, suggesting that the two disorders are closely related and may have a common cause. Disturbances of serotonin and norepinephrine neurotransmission are both implicated in anxiety and depression, and new evidence suggests that these systems may provide a mechanistic link between the two disorders, with changes in one system being reflected in the other. Abnormal homeostasis of these two systems may result in anxiety and depression. New theories hypothesize a continuum of illness, with anxiety and depression possibly being different phenotypic expressions of a common neurobiological origin. There is still uncertainty regarding the neurobiological cause, but it is probably linked to dysregulation in the serotonergic and noradrenergic systems.",
author = "Baldwin, {David S.} and Evans, {Dwight L.} and Hirschfeld, {Robert M A} and Siegfried Kasper",
year = "2002",
month = "6",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "36 Suppl 2",
pages = "158--165",
journal = "Psychopharmacology Bulletin",
issn = "0048-5764",
publisher = "MedWorks Media LLC",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Can we distinguish anxiety from depression?

AU - Baldwin, David S.

AU - Evans, Dwight L.

AU - Hirschfeld, Robert M A

AU - Kasper, Siegfried

PY - 2002/6

Y1 - 2002/6

N2 - It is becoming increasingly apparent that although anxiety and depression are separate syndromes and can be identified as such, there is considerable overlap of clinical symptoms and pathophysiological processes. Data indicate that comorbid anxiety and depression is more common than either disorder alone. A large US study found that 58% of individuals with a history of depression also had an anxiety disorder, and a study by the World Health Organization showed that anxiety and depression were the most common coexisting psychological problems in primary care. Generalized anxiety disorder in particular is strongly comorbid with, and commonly precedes, major depression. The implications of comorbid anxiety and depression are significant, with increased social and psychological impairment, and poorer clinical outcomes and prognosis. Anxiety and depression coexist at much higher rates than would be expected by chance alone, suggesting that the two disorders are closely related and may have a common cause. Disturbances of serotonin and norepinephrine neurotransmission are both implicated in anxiety and depression, and new evidence suggests that these systems may provide a mechanistic link between the two disorders, with changes in one system being reflected in the other. Abnormal homeostasis of these two systems may result in anxiety and depression. New theories hypothesize a continuum of illness, with anxiety and depression possibly being different phenotypic expressions of a common neurobiological origin. There is still uncertainty regarding the neurobiological cause, but it is probably linked to dysregulation in the serotonergic and noradrenergic systems.

AB - It is becoming increasingly apparent that although anxiety and depression are separate syndromes and can be identified as such, there is considerable overlap of clinical symptoms and pathophysiological processes. Data indicate that comorbid anxiety and depression is more common than either disorder alone. A large US study found that 58% of individuals with a history of depression also had an anxiety disorder, and a study by the World Health Organization showed that anxiety and depression were the most common coexisting psychological problems in primary care. Generalized anxiety disorder in particular is strongly comorbid with, and commonly precedes, major depression. The implications of comorbid anxiety and depression are significant, with increased social and psychological impairment, and poorer clinical outcomes and prognosis. Anxiety and depression coexist at much higher rates than would be expected by chance alone, suggesting that the two disorders are closely related and may have a common cause. Disturbances of serotonin and norepinephrine neurotransmission are both implicated in anxiety and depression, and new evidence suggests that these systems may provide a mechanistic link between the two disorders, with changes in one system being reflected in the other. Abnormal homeostasis of these two systems may result in anxiety and depression. New theories hypothesize a continuum of illness, with anxiety and depression possibly being different phenotypic expressions of a common neurobiological origin. There is still uncertainty regarding the neurobiological cause, but it is probably linked to dysregulation in the serotonergic and noradrenergic systems.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=34547416654&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=34547416654&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 36 Suppl 2

SP - 158

EP - 165

JO - Psychopharmacology Bulletin

JF - Psychopharmacology Bulletin

SN - 0048-5764

ER -