Objective: To develop and validate a nomogram assessing cancer and all-cause mortality following radical cystectomy. Given concerns regarding the morbidity associated with surgery, there is a need for incorporation of cancer-specific and competing risks into patient counseling and recommendations. Materials and Methods: A total of 5325 and 1257 diagnosed with clinical stage T2-T4a muscle-invasive bladder cancer from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2011 from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare and Texas Cancer Registry-Medicare linked data, respectively. Cox proportional hazards models were used and a nomogram was developed to predict 3- and 5-year overall and cancer-specific survival with external validation. Results: Patients who underwent radical cystectomy were mostly younger, male, married, non-Hispanic white and had fewer comorbidities than those who did not undergo radical cystectomy (P < .001). Married patients, in comparison with their unmarried counterparts, had both improved overall (hazard ratio 0.76; 95% confidence interval 0.70-0.83, P < .001) and cancer-specific (hazard ratio 0.76; 95% confidence interval 0.68-0.85, P < .001) survival. A nomogram developed using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare data, predicted 3- and 5-year overall and cancer-specific survival rates with concordance indices of 0.65 and 0.66 in the validated Texas Cancer Registry-Medicare cohort, respectively. Conclusion: Older, unmarried patients with increased comorbidities are less likely to undergo radical cystectomy. We developed and validated a generalizable instrument that has been converted into an online tool (Radical Cystectomy Survival Calculator), to provide a benefit-risk assessment for patients considering radical cystectomy.
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