Candidate vaccines for human Rift Valley fever

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Introduction: Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks can cause devastating economic loss and public health concerns. RVF virus (RVFV: genus Phlebovirus family Phenuiviridae) is transmitted by mosquitoes, causes abortion in sheep, cattle, and goats, and severe diseases in humans including hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, or retinitis. RVFV has spread from sub-Saharan Africa into Madagascar, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen. Area covered: There are a few licensed veterinary RVF vaccines in endemic countries, whereas no licensed RVF vaccines are available for human use. There are two Investigational New Drug (IND) RVF candidate vaccines used in clinical trials. This review will discuss the development of two IND vaccines for RVF over the past 20–40 years, and further innovation for future RVF vaccines applicable for the use in endemic areas. Expert opinion: Vaccination for human RVF can protect at-risk personnel against severe RVF illness. Formalin-inactivated RVF candidate vaccine requires three doses to induce protective immunity, whereas the live-attenuated MP-12 candidate vaccine retains strong immunogenicity. Further innovation in safety, immunogenicity, and thermostability will facilitate future RVF vaccines for humans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1333-1342
Number of pages10
JournalExpert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2 2019


  • Clinical trial
  • Investigational New Drug
  • Rift Valley fever
  • thermostability
  • vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Clinical Biochemistry


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