Care patterns and predictors of community residence among older patients after hospital discharge for traumatic brain injury

Monique R. Pappadis, Ioannis Malagaris, Yong Fang Kuo, Natalie Leland, Janet Freburger, James S. Goodwin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: An increasing number of older adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) require hospitalization, but it is unknown whether they return to their community following discharge. We examined community residence following acute hospital discharge for TBI in Texas and identified factors associated with 90-day community residence and readmission. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using 100% Texas Medicare claims data of patients older than 65 years hospitalized for a TBI from January 1, 2014, through December 31, 2017, and followed for 20 weeks after discharge. Discharges to short-term and long-term acute hospital, inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF), skilled nursing facility (SNF), long-term nursing home (NH), and hospice were identified. The primary outcome was 90-day community residence. Our secondary outcome was 90-day, all-cause readmission. Results: In Texas, 26,985 Medicare fee-for-service patients were hospitalized for TBI (Racial and ethnic minorities: 21.1%; Females 57.3%). At 90 days and 20 weeks following discharge, 80% and 84% were living in the community respectively. Female sex (OR = 1.16 [1.08–1.25]), Hispanic ethnicity (OR = 2.01 [1.80–2.25]), “other” race (OR = 2.19 [1.73–2.77]), and prior primary care provider (PCP; OR = 1.51 [1.40–1.62]) were associated with increased likelihood of 90-day community residence. Patients aged 75+, prior NH residence, dual eligibility, prior TBI diagnosis, and moderate-to-severe injury severity were associated with decreased likelihood of 90-day community residence. Being non-Hispanic Black (HR = 1.33 [1.20–1.46]), discharge to SNF (HR = 1.56 [1.48–1.65]) or IRF (HR = 1.49 [1.40–1.59]), having prior PCP (HR = 1.23 [1.17–1.30]), dual eligibility (HR = 1.11 [1.04–1.18]), and prior TBI diagnosis (HR = 1.05 [1.01–1.10]) were associated with increased risk of 90-day readmission. Female sex and “other” race were associated with decreased risk of 90-day readmission. Conclusions: Most older adults with TBI return to the community following hospital discharge. Disparities exist in returning to the community and in risk of 90-day readmission following hospital discharge. Future studies should explore how having a PCP influences post-hospital outcomes in chronic care management of older patients with TBI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1806-1818
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of the American Geriatrics Society
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2023


  • Medicare
  • ethnic and racial minorities
  • long-term care
  • patient discharge
  • traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology


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