Purpose: Surgical management of carotid restenosis (CR) after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has been associated with a higher perioperative complication rate than that of primary CEA. We recently used carotid angioplasty-stenting (CAS) as an alternative to operative management in patients who had undergone CEA within three years, and we retrospectively compared these results with those of operative management of CR and the overall results of CEA. Methods: CEA was performed on 1065 adult patients (58% symptomatic, 42% asymptomatic), 62% of whom were men (n = 660) and 38% of whom were women (n = 405), from 1989 to 1997. Before our initiation of a program of CAS, 16 operative procedures (1.9% of CEAs) were performed for CR in 14 adult patients (7 women and 7 men). During the last 20 months, CAS was used in the management of 17 CRs (16 patients; 9 women and 7 men). Results: The 30-day stroke morbidity-death rate for all CEAs (n = 1065) was 1.4%; 11 strokes (1.0%) occurred (4 major strokes with disability and 7 strokes with minor or no disability), and 4 deaths (0.4%) occurred (2 deaths caused by myocardial infarction, 1 caused by intracranial hemorrhage, and 1 caused by stroke). Operative management of CR (n = 16) included patch angioplasty in 12 cases (autologous vein patches in 10 cases and synthetic patches in 2 cases), whereas interposition grafting was used in 4 cases (saphenous vein in 3 instances and synthetic [polytetrafluoroethylene] in one case). No strokes or deaths were observed. One recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy occurred (6.2%). Among the 16 patients undergoing 17 CAS procedures, the technical procedures were accomplished in all patients. No strokes or deaths occurred. No recurrent restenoses (50% or greater) have been identified within or adjacent to the CAS procedures. Conclusion: CR caused by myointimal hyperplasia can be managed by operative techniques or CAS with comparable periprocedural complications. Although long-term follow-up will be required to determine the incidence of recurrent restenosis, CAS may become the preferred procedure in these cases. A randomized clinical trial ultimately will be necessary to determine the role of CAS, as compared with that of operative management.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine