Case-control study of risk factors for human infection with a new zoonotic paramyxovirus, Nipah virus, during a 1998-1999 outbreak of severe encephalitis in Malaysia

Umesh D. Parashar, Lye Munn Sunn, Flora Ong, Anthony W. Mounts, Mohamad Taha Arif, Thomas Ksiazek, Muhammad A. Kamaluddin, Amal N. Mustafa, Hanjeet Kaur, Lay Ming Ding, Ghazali Othman, Hayati M. Radzi, Paul T. Kitsutani, Patrick C. Stockton, John Arokiasamy, Howard E. Gary, Larry J. Anderson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

181 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

An outbreak of encephalitis affecting 265 patients (105 fatally) occurred during 1998-1999 in Malaysia and was linked to a new paramyxovirus, Nipah, that infected pigs, humans, dogs, and cats. Most patients were pig farmers. Clinically undetected Nipah infection was noted in 10 (6%) of 166 community-farm controls (persons from farms without reported encephalitis patients) and 20 (11%) of 178 case-farm controls (persons from farms with encephalitis patients). Case patients (persons with Nipah infection)were more likely than community-farm controls to report increased numbers of sick/dying pigs on the farm (59% vs. 24%, P = .001) and were more likely than case-farm controls to perform activities requiring direct contact with pigs (86% vs. 50%, P = .005). Only 8% of case patients reported no contact with pigs. The outbreak stopped after pigs in the affected areas were slaughtered and buried. Direct, close contact with pigs was the primary source of human Nipah infection, but other sources, such as infected dogs and cats, cannot be excluded.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1755-1759
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Volume181
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes

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Nipah Virus
Malaysia
Zoonoses
Encephalitis
Disease Outbreaks
Case-Control Studies
Swine
Infection
Cats
Dogs
Farms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Immunology

Cite this

Case-control study of risk factors for human infection with a new zoonotic paramyxovirus, Nipah virus, during a 1998-1999 outbreak of severe encephalitis in Malaysia. / Parashar, Umesh D.; Sunn, Lye Munn; Ong, Flora; Mounts, Anthony W.; Arif, Mohamad Taha; Ksiazek, Thomas; Kamaluddin, Muhammad A.; Mustafa, Amal N.; Kaur, Hanjeet; Ding, Lay Ming; Othman, Ghazali; Radzi, Hayati M.; Kitsutani, Paul T.; Stockton, Patrick C.; Arokiasamy, John; Gary, Howard E.; Anderson, Larry J.

In: Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 181, No. 5, 2000, p. 1755-1759.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Parashar, UD, Sunn, LM, Ong, F, Mounts, AW, Arif, MT, Ksiazek, T, Kamaluddin, MA, Mustafa, AN, Kaur, H, Ding, LM, Othman, G, Radzi, HM, Kitsutani, PT, Stockton, PC, Arokiasamy, J, Gary, HE & Anderson, LJ 2000, 'Case-control study of risk factors for human infection with a new zoonotic paramyxovirus, Nipah virus, during a 1998-1999 outbreak of severe encephalitis in Malaysia', Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 181, no. 5, pp. 1755-1759. https://doi.org/10.1086/315457
Parashar, Umesh D. ; Sunn, Lye Munn ; Ong, Flora ; Mounts, Anthony W. ; Arif, Mohamad Taha ; Ksiazek, Thomas ; Kamaluddin, Muhammad A. ; Mustafa, Amal N. ; Kaur, Hanjeet ; Ding, Lay Ming ; Othman, Ghazali ; Radzi, Hayati M. ; Kitsutani, Paul T. ; Stockton, Patrick C. ; Arokiasamy, John ; Gary, Howard E. ; Anderson, Larry J. / Case-control study of risk factors for human infection with a new zoonotic paramyxovirus, Nipah virus, during a 1998-1999 outbreak of severe encephalitis in Malaysia. In: Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2000 ; Vol. 181, No. 5. pp. 1755-1759.
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