Causal diagrams and multivariate analysis I: A quiver full of arrows

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    5 Scopus citations


    How do we know which variables we should include in our multivariate analyses? What role does each variable play in our understanding of the analysis? In this article I begin a discussion of these issues and describe 2 different types of studies for which this problem must be handled in different ways.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)672-673
    Number of pages2
    JournalJournal of Foot and Ankle Surgery
    Issue number5
    StatePublished - Sep 2014


    • Confounder
    • Effect modification
    • Multivariate analysis
    • Precision variable

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Surgery
    • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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