Causal Diagrams and Multivariate Analysis III: Confound It!

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    7 Scopus citations


    This commentary concludes my series concerning inclusion of variables in multivariate analyses. We take up the issues of confounding and effect modification and summarize the work we have thus far done. Finally, we provide a rough algorithm to help guide us through the maze of possibilities that we have outlined.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)145-147
    Number of pages3
    JournalJournal of Foot and Ankle Surgery
    Issue number1
    StatePublished - 2015


    • Confounder
    • Effect modification
    • Multivariate analysis
    • Precision variable

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Surgery
    • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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